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Kathryn Vowden

PositionNursing Lecturer and Honorary Nurse Consultant at Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Location2.09
DepartmentSchool of Nursing and Healthcare Leadership
Telephone01274 236285
Emailk.vowden@bradford.ac.uk

Research Interests (key words only)

Wound Care Innovations in Prevention and Treatment, Diabetic Foot, Leg Ulcer Management, Wound Care Service Delivery

Teaching and Supervisory Responsibilities

  • Debridement of Wounds
  • Advances in Wound Care
  • Leg Ulcer Management
  • Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Damage

Biography

  • Junior Sister. Neurosurgery and General surgery (Leeds)
  • Junior Sister. General, Vascular and Urological surgery (Leeds)
  • Senior Sister. General, Vascular and Urological surgery (Leeds)
  • Professional development & Project Nurse Seacroft Hospital (Leeds)
  • Vascular Research Nurse (Bradford)
  • Clinical Nurse Specialist (Vascular and Wound Healing Bradford)
  • Nurse Consultant Acute and Chronic Wounds (Bradford) since 2002

Awards:

  • British Journal of Nursing Clinical Practice Award (2001)
  • Wounds UK Award Pressure Ulcer Care (2007)
  • Molnlycke Acadamy Lifetime achievement / Major contribution (2009)
  • Wounds UK Innovations in Patient Care & Practice development (2009)
  • Wounds UK lifetime achievement award (2010)
  • Medallist of the Order of the British Empire (BEM). For services to Nursing (2016)

Study History

  • MSc - University of Bradford
  • BSc and Professional Qualifications - University of Hertfordshire, Thames Valley University and University of Manchester
  • Nurse Training at St James's University Hospitals, Leeds

Professional Activities

  • Executive editorial advisor for the Journal of Wound Care 1997 -         
  • Cochrane reviewer (Intermittent Pneumatic Compression) 2001-         
  • Executive editorial committee International Wounds Journal 2004 -    
  • Editorial board Wounds UK 2005-                                                         
  • Specialist Advisor for NICE 2009-2010                                                  
  • Trustee for Tissue Viability Society 2009-2012                                                             

Current Projects

  • The Burden of Wounds on the NHS
  • Health Technology Cooperative (HTC) for prevention and treatment of wounds.
  • NHS England Improving Wound Care Project (project board member)
  • NHS Improvement Wound care expert advisory group MH&C Carter Review

Publications

GUEST, J.F., VOWDEN, K., VOWDEN, P. 2017. The health economic burden that acute and chronic wounds impose on an average clinical commissioning group/ health board in the UK. Journal of Wound Care 26(6) 292-303.

VOWDEN, K., VOWDEN, P. 2017. Wound dressings: principles and practice, Surgery http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2017.06.005 (in press)

GUEST, J. F., AYOUB, N., MCILWRAITH, T., UCHEGBU, I., GERRISH, A., WEIDLICH, D., VOWDEN, K. & VOWDEN, P. 2016 Health economic burden that different wound types impose on the UK’s National Health Service. International Wound Journal.

VOWDEN, K. 2016. Cavity wounds. Wounds UK, 12, 18-23.

VOWDEN, K., WARNER, V. & COLLINS, J. 2016. Pressure ulcer incidence: Do patients retain information. EWMA Journal, 16, 35-36.

VOWDEN, P. & VOWDEN, K. 2016. The economic impact of hard-to-heal wounds: promoting practice change to address passivity in wound management. Wounds International, 7, 10-15.

VOWDEN, P. & VOWDEN, K. 2016. Clinical care delivery implications of the "Burden of Wounds" study. Wounds UK, 12, 12-21.

VOWDEN, K. & VOWDEN, P. 2016. The growing burden of leg ulcers in the UK. Guardian Health Supplement.

VOWDEN, K. & VOWDEN, P. 2016 The importance of detecting lower limb ischaemia. Wounds International, 7, 6-9.

Vowden K, Warner V and Collins J (2016). Pressure ulcer incidence: Do patients retain information. EWMA Journal, 16, 35-36.

Vowden K (2016). Cavity wounds. Wounds UK, 12, 18-23.

Guest JF, Ayoub N, Mcilwraith T, Uchegbu I, Gerrish A, Weidlich D, Vowden K and Vowden P (2016 (Accepted for publication)). Health economic burden that different wound types impose on the UK’s national health service. International Wound Journal.

Vowden K (2016) The importance of detecting lower limb ischaemia. Wound Essentials (in press)

Chadwick P, Mccardle JE, Mohamud L, Tickle J, Vowden K and Vowden P (2015). Appropriate use of topical haemoglobin in chronic wound management: consensus recommendations. Wounds UK, 11, 16-19.

Guest JF, Ayoub N, Mcilwraith T, Uchegbu I, Gerrish A, Weidlich D, Vowden K and Vowden P (2015 ). Health economic burden that wounds impose on the national health service in the UK. BMJ Open, 5, e009283.

Guest JF, Gerrish A, Ayoub N, Vowden K and Vowden P (2015 ). Clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of using a two-layer cohesive compression bandage compared with a two-layer compression system and a four-layer compression system in clinical practice in the UK. Journal of Wound Care, 24, 300-310.

Stephen-Haynes J, Atkins L, Elstone A, Johnson LJ, Lindsay E, O'neill C, Elwell R, Vowden P, Williams A, Macewan I, Nichols E, Vowden K and Young T (2015). Wounds UK Best Practice Statement (2015) Compression hosiery, London, Wounds UK.

Vowden K (2015 ). Wound care's role in the future NHS (Editorial). Br J Community Nursing, 20, S5.

Vowden K and Vowden P (2015). Documentation in pressure ulcer prevention and management. Wounds UK, 11, 21-25.

Vowden P and Vowden K (2015 ). Diabetic foot ulcer or pressure ulcer? That is the question. The Diabetic Foot Journal, 18, 62-66.

Shahi N, Bradley S, Vowden K and Vowden P (2014). Diabetic bullae: A case series and a new model of surgical management. Journal of Wound Care, 23, 326-330.

Tweedle B, Vig S, Vowden K and Tyrer J (2014). Larval debridement therapy: vascular wound management. Wounds UK, 10.

Vowden K and Vowden P (2014). Wound dressings: principles and practice. Surgery (Oxford), 32, 462-467.

Beasley A, Dowcett C, Fletcher J, Grothier L, Lindsay E, Mahoney K, Morton N, Tilbe H and Vowden K (2013). Optimising venous leg ulcer services in a changing NHS: A UK consensus, London, Wounds UK.

Chadwick P, Clark M, Fumarola S, Harker J, Harris H, Price B, Stang D, Vowden K, Vowden P and Young T (2013). Effective debridement in a changing NHS: a UK consensus. London: Wounds UK.

Fletcher J, Moffatt C, Partsch H, Vowden K and Vowden P (2013). Principles of compression in venous disease: a practitioner's guide to treatment and prevention of venous leg ulcers, London, Wounds International.

Harding K, Posnett J and Vowden K (2013). A new methodology for costing wound care. International Wound Journal, 10, 623-629.

Lindsay E, Vowden P and Vowden K (2013). Does the anatomical position of the motorcyclist impact venous return? Wounds UK, 9, 46-50.

Lindsay E, Vowden P, Vowden K and Megson J (2013). Motorcycle ride position, venous return, and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. EWMA Journal, 13, 35-36.

Madhok BM, Vowden K and Vowden P (2013). New techniques for wound debridement. Int Wound J, 10, 247-251.

Vowden K and Vowden P (2013). A pilot study on the potential of remote support to enhance wound care for nursing-home patients. Journal of Wound Care, 22, 481-488.

Vowden K and Vowden P (2013). Ten top tips on preventing pressure ulcers on the heel. Wounds International, 4, 13-15.

Britland S, Ross-Smith O, Jamil H, Smith AG, Vowden K and Vowden P (2012). The lactate conundrum in wound healing: Clinical and experimental findings indicate the requirement for a rapid point-of-care diagnostic. Biotechnol Prog, 28, 917-924.

Guest JF, Taylor RR, Vowden K, Vowden P and C MC (2012). Relative cost-effectiveness of a skin protectant in managing venous leg ulcers in the UK. Journal of Wound Care, 21, 389-394, 396-388.

Rycerz A, Vowden K, Warner V and Jorgensen B (2012). V.A.C Ulta TM NPWT System made easy. Wounds International, 3.

Vowden K and Vowden P (2012). How to guide: Effective compression therapy. Wound Essentials, 7.

Vowden K and Vowden P. (2012) Effective compression therapy. Wound Essentials 7(2) November 2012

Before 2012

Britland, S. T., Smith, A. G., Finter, W. F., Eagland, D., Vowden, K., Vowden, P., Telford, G., Brown, A. & Pritchard, D. 2011. Recombinant Lucilia Sericata chymotrypsin in a topical hydrogel formulation degrades human wound eschar ex vivo. Biotechnology Progress.

Gray, D., Acton, C., Chadwick, P., Fumarola, S., Leaper, D. J., Morris, C., Stang, D., Vowden, K., Vowden, P. & Young, T. 2011. Consensus guidance for the use of debridement techniques in the UK. Wounds UK, 7, 77-85.

Guest, J. F., Greener, M. J., Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. 2011. Clinical and economic evidence supporting a transparent barrier film dressing in inconteinence-associated dermatitis and peri-wound skin protection. Journal of Wound Care, 20, 76-84.

Harding, K., Armstrong, D. G., Barrett, S., Kaufman, H., Lazaro-Martinez, J., Mayer, D., Moore, Z., Romanelli, M., Queen, D., Schultz, G., Serena, T., Sibbald, G., Snyder, R., Strohal, R., Vowden, K., Vowden, P. & Zamboni, P. 2011. International consensus. The role of proteases in wound diagnostics. An expert working group review. London.

Nelson, E. A., Mani, R., Thomas, K. & Vowden, K. 2011. Intermittent pneumatic compression for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Vowden, K., Vowden, P., Partsch, H. & Treadwell, T. 2011. 3M COBAN 2 Compression made easy. Wounds International 2.

Vowden, P., Vowden, K. & Carvorsi, J. 2011. Antimcrobial dressings made easy. Wounds International, 2.

Vowden, K., Vowden, P. & Posnett, J. (2009) The resource Costs of Wound Care in Bradford and Airedale. Journal of Wound Care.

Vowden, K. R. & Vowden, P. (2009) A survey of wound care provision within one English health care district. Journal of Tissue Viability, 18, 2-6.

Vowden, K. R. & Vowden, P. (2009) The prevalence, management and outcome for acute wounds identified in a wound care survey within one English health care district. Journal of Tissue Viability, 18, 7-12.

Vowden, K. R. & Vowden, P. (2009) The prevalence, management and outcome for patients with lower limb ulceration identified in a wound care survey within one English health care district. Journal of Tissue Viability, 18, 13-19.

Vowden, K. R. & Vowden, P. (2009) The prevalence, management, equipment provision and outcome for patients with pressure ulceration identified in a wound care survey within one English health care district. Journal of Tissue Viability, 18, 20-26.

Nelson, E. A., Mani, R. & Vowden, K. (2008) Intermittent pneumatic compression for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD001899.

Moffatt, C. Vowden, K. Price, P. Vowden, P. (2008) Psychological factors and delayed healing. IN Moffatt, C. (Ed.) European Wound Management Association (EWMA), Position Document: Hard to Heal wounds: a Holistic approach. London, MEP Ltd.

World Union of Wound Healing Societies (WUWHS). Principles of best Practice: Compression in venous leg ulcers. A consensus document. London MEP Ltd 2008.

Collins, J. & Vowden, K. (2008) Wound debridement: theory to practice (Abstract). Journal of Tissue Viability, 17, 127.

Vowden, K. (2008) Ongoing treatment evaluation is the only reliable guide to a product's effectiveness. Wounds UK, 4, 151.

Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2008) Bradford and Airedale Wound Care Audit Report.

Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2008) Compression therapy for venous ulcers. Independent Nurse, 20 October, 31-32.

Folestad, A., Gilchrist, B., De Laat, E., Lyder, C., Meaume, S., Phillips, T. J., Price, P., Romanelli, M., Sibbald, G., Vancheidt, W., Verdu, J., Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2007) World Union of Wound Healing Societies (WUWHS). Principles of best practice: Wound exudate and the role of dressings. A consensus document, London, MEP Ltd.

Mcgowan, J., Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2007) Treatment of leg ulceration a consequence of intravenous drug abuse the multidisciplinary approach (Abstract P 144). EWMA Journal, 7 (Supplement), 163.

Rashid, S. T., Pilcher, M., Renton, C., Vowden, K. & Vowden, K. (2007) Platelet rich fibrin as a topical wound dressing for hard-to-heal wounds (Abstract P 149). EWMA Journal, 7 (Supplement), 166.

Vowden, K., Mcgowan, J., Pilcher, M., D'arcy, A., Rayner, C., Warner, V., Megson, J. & Vowden, P. (2007) Experience with the use of an amelogenin-based extracellular matrix substitute in the management of a variety of complex hard-to-heal chronic wounds (Abstract 91). EWMA 2007, 7 (Supplement), 61.

Vowden, K., Teot, L. & Vowden, P. (2007) Selecting topical negative pressure therapy in practice. IN Moffatt, C. (Ed.) European Wound Management Association (EWMA), Position Document: Topical negative pressure in wound management. London, MEP Ltd.

Vowden, P. & Vowden, K. (2007) How should compression hosiery be used for patients who have had deep venous thrombosis? (Correspondence). Wounds UK, 3, 89.

Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2006) Doppler and Pulse Oximetry. Wounds UK, 2, 13-16.

Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2006) Bridging the gap: The impact of patient choice on wound care. Journal of Wound Care, 15, 143-145.

Britland, S., Smith, A., Crowther, N., Eagland, D., Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2006) Microengineered hydrogel as a vehicle for grafting human skin cells. EWMA Journal, 6, 12-15.

Vowden, K. R. & Vowden, P. (2006) Preventing venous ulcer recurrence: a review. International Wound Journal, 3, 11-21.

Smith, A. G., Din, A., Denyer, M., Crowther, N. J., Eagland, D., Vowden, K., Vowden, P. & Britland, S. T. (2006) Microengineered surface topography facilitates cell grafting from a prototype hydrogel wound dressing with antibacterial capability. Biotechnol Prog, 22, 1407-15.

Vowden, P. & Vowden, K. (2006) Integrating adjunctive therapy into practice: The importance of recognizing ‘hard to heal’ leg ulcers.  Leg Ulcer Forum Journal, Issue 20 Autumn 2006.17-21

Troxler, M. Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2006) Integrating adjunctive therapy into practice: the importance of recognising ‘hard to heal’ wounds. WorldWideWounds.com

Smith, A., Britland, S., Crowther, N., Eagland, D., Vowden, P. & Vowden, K. (2006) Microengineered hydrogel as a vehicle for grafting human skin cells. EWMA Journal, 6, 12-15.

Vowden K. and Vowden P (2005) Moist Wound Healing for the diabetic foot within the context of TIME. Wounds UK Suppl (S20-23)

Vowden, K. & Vowden, P. (2005) Moist wound healing for the diabetic foot within the concept of TIME. Wounds UK, 1, 20-23.

Vowden, K. (2005) How good are we at preventing venous ulceration. The Leg Ulcer Forum Journal, 29-32.

Vowden, K. (2005) Complex wound or complex patient? Strategies for treatment. Br J Community Nurs, Suppl, S6, S8, S10 passim.

Coull, A., Clark, M., Bale, S., Collier, M., Hopkins, A., Kingsley, A., Lindsay, E. & Vowden, K. (2005) Best Practice Statement: Compression hosiery. IN COULL, A. & CLARK, M. (Eds.) Aberdeen, Wounds UK.

Anderson, K., Davies, P., Grier, J., Lloyd-Jones, M., O'Brien, M., Sayer, S., Wicks, G., Vowden, K. & Young, T. (2005) Conservative Sharp Debridement: Procedure, Competencies and Training. TVNA.

Vowden, K. (2004). "Wound Management: The considerations involved in dressing selection." Nurse Prescribing 2(4): 152-162.

Browne, N. Grocott, P. . Cowley, S. Cameron, J. Dealey, C. Keogh, A. Lovatt, A. Vowden, K.

Vowden, P.  (2004). "Woundcare Research for Appropriate Products (WRAP): Validation of the TELER method involving users." International Journal of Nursing Studies 41(5): 559-571.

Browne, N. Grocott, P. Cowley, S. Cameron, J. Dealey, C. Keogh, A. Lovatt, A. Vowden, K. Vowden, P. (2004). "The TELER system in wound care research and post market surveillance." EWMA Journal 4(1): 26-32.

Harding, K. Vowden, K. Thomas, D. Price, P. (2004). Statements on Important Aspects of Wound Healing. European Tissue Repair Society 10(2): S3-S8.

Marston, W. and Vowden, K. (2003) Compression therapy: a guide to safe practice. In: Understanding Compression Therapy(Ed, Moffatt, C.) Medical Education Partnership, London, pp. 11-17.

Vowden K, D'Arcy A, Vowden P. A case report illustrating the management of a complex neuropathic foot ulcer. 2002 (In press) (Revision 1); Accessed: 2002(May).Internet Journal www.worldwidewounds.com

Lovatt, A., Vowden, K. and Vowden, P. (2002) In 12th Conference of the European Wound Management Association: Chronic Wound Management and Quality of Life(Eds, J Javier Soldevilla

Agreda and J Enric Torra i Bou) European Wound Management Association, Granada, Spain, pp. 298.

Vowden, K., D'Arcy, A. and Vowden, P. (2002) A case report illustrating the management of a complex neuropathic foot ulcer World Wide Wounds May)

Vowden, K., D'Arcy, A. and Vowden, P. (2002) In 12th Conference of the European Wound Management Association: Chronic Wound Management and Quality of Life(Eds, J Javier Soldevilla Agreda and J Enric Torra i Bou) European Wound Management Association, Granada, Spain, pp. 259.

Vowden, K. and Vowden, P. (2002) Can the cuff position be varied when recording ABPI? J Wound Care 11(7): 250-1; discussion 251

Vowden, P. and Vowden, K. (2002) Investigations in the management of lower limb ulceration. In: Trends in Wound Care 2002(Ed, White, R. J.) Quay Books, London and Salisbury, UK.

Vowden, P. and Vowden, K. (2002) Wound Bed Preparation (WBP) World Wide Wounds April

Vowden, P. and Vowden, K. R. (2002) Compression for venous leg ulcer management. In: Chronic Wound Healing: The evidence for change(Ed, Mani, R.) Parthenon Publishing, London.

Vowden, P. and Vowden, K. R. (2002) Questions & answers: ABPI Dopplers and DVT. Journal of Wound Care 11(2): 56

Vowden, P. and Vowden, K. R. (2002) Leg Ulcer Management. In: The Medical Book 2001(Ed, Lawrence, R.) Medilink Press, London, pp. 108-112.

Vowden KR., Vowden P. Mixed aetiology leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 2001 10 (1) 520.

Mani R, Vowden K Nelson EA. 2001Intermittent pneumatic compression for the treatment of venous leg ulcers (Protocol for a Cochrane Review)

Vowden KR., Goulding V., Vowden P. Hand held Doppler assessment for peripheral arterial disease. Chiropody Review 2001 58 (3) 14-16.

Chetter IC.,Vowden K.,Wilkinson D., Vowden P. Is ethnicity an aetiological factor in the development of lower limb venous disease? Irish Journal of Medical Science. 2001 170 p33.

Chetter IC., Spark J.,Goulding V., Vowden K., Wilkinson D.,Vowden P. Is there a relationship between the aetiology and healing rates of lower limb venous ulcers? Phlebology 2001 6 (1) 47-48.

Vowden P., Vowden K. Doppler assessment: ABPI interpretation in the management of leg ulcers 2001 World Wide Wounds. www.worldwidewounds.com

Vowden K. The use of intermittent compression in venous leg ulcers. British Journal of Nursing 2001 10 (8) 491-523.

Vowden KR., Vowden P. Knowledge is power. Journal of Wound Care 2001 10 (4) 97.

Vowden KR., Wilkinson D.,Vowden P. The K-Four Bandage system: evaluating its effectiveness on recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 2001 10 (5) 182-184.

Vowden KR., Mason A., Wilkinson D., Vowden P. Comparison of the healing rates and complications of three four layer bandage regimens. Journal of Wound Care 2000 9 (6) 1-4.

Vowden KR. D’Arcy A. Early experience with ultrasound in the management of chronic neuropathic foot ulceration. In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on advances in wound management. 1998. Leaper DJ, Cherry GW, Dealey C, Lawrence JC & Turner TD.(Eds) 1999.

Vowden KR. Vowden P. Wound debridement, Part 1. Journal of Wound Care 1999 8 (5) 237-240.

Vowden KR. Vowden P. Wound debridement, Part 2. Journal of Wound Care 1999  8 (6) 291-294.

Renwick P, Vowden KR, Wilkinson D & Vowden P. The pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic foot disease. Journal of Wound Care 1998,7 (2) 107-110.

Spark I, Vowden KR & Vowden P. Lower limb amputation: Wound care and rehabilitation. Journal of Wound Care 1998, 7 (3) 137-140.

Vowden KR, Spark I & Vowden P. Lower limb amputation: Planning for Surgery. Journal of Wound Care 1998,7 (4) 205-208.

Watson S & Vowden KR. The effect of education on practice: How the N18 influences care. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management. 1997.

Leaper DJ, Cherry GW, Dealey C, Lawrence JC & Turner TD.(Eds) 1998.

Vowden KR. Care and re-use of bandages. Journal of Wound Care 1998.

Vowden KR, Vowden P. Venous leg ulcers. Part 2:assessment. Professional Nurse 1998 13 (9)633-638.

Vowden KR., Vowden P. Anatomy, physiology and venous ulceration. In: Calne S. (ed) Compression therapy 1998 London emap.

Vowden KR. Larval therapy in a vascular unit. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Bio-therapy Society conference.1998. Porthcawl. IBS.

Vowden KR. Lipodermatosclerosis and atrophie blanche. Journal of Wound Care 1998 7 (9) 441-443.

Vowden KR. Diabetic foot complications. Journal of Wound Care 1997, 6 (1) 2-6.

Marjanovic D, Dugdale RE, Vowden KR,& Vowden P. Laser scanning of leg ulcers.  Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management. 1996. Leaper DJ, Cherry GW, Dealey C, Lawrence JC & Turner TD.(Eds) 1997, 271.

Vowden KR, Barker A & Vowden P. Experience of a nurse led, hospital based, leg ulcer clinic. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management. 1996. Leaper DJ, Cherry GW, Dealey C, Lawrence JC & Turner TD.(Eds) 1997, 31.

Vowden KR & Vowden P. Screening investigations for patients with leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care,(Resource file) 1997

Vowden KR & Vowden P. Vascular assessment in compression therapy. Professional Nurse 1997, 12 (7) S3-S6.

Vowden KR, Barker A & Vowden P. Leg ulcer management in a nurse-led, hospital based clinic. Journal of Wound Care 1997, 6 (5) 233-236.

Vowden KR, Topical analgesics in leg ulcer patients. Journal of Wound Care, 1997, 6 (5) 239.

Vowden KR & Vowden P.  Peripheral arterial disease.  Journal of Wound Care, 1996, 5 (1) 23-26.

Vowden KR & Vowden P.  Arterial disease: reversible and irreversible risk factors.  Journal of Wound Care, 1996, 5 (2) 89-90.

Vowden KR Goulding V & Vowden P.  Hand held Doppler assessment for peripheral arterial disease.  Journal of Wound Care, 1996, 5 (3) 125-128.

Vowden K. Common problems in wound care: wound and ulcer measurement.  British Journal of Nursing, 1995, 4 (13) 775-779.

Vowden KR. ABPI: Correct technique essential.  Journal of Wound Care, 1995, 4 (5) 207.

Ibbett DA, Dugdale RE, Hart GC, Vowden KR & Vowden P.  Measuring leg ulcers using a laser displacement sensor.  Physiological Measurement 1994, 15 325-332.

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