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Neurological conditions - useful information

Stroke

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted. There are two types of stroke, ischaemic stroke, which affects approximately 85% of stroke patients and haemorrhagic stroke, which affects approximately 15% of stroke patients.

In an ischaemic stroke the blood supply to the brain is blocked resulting in death of brain tissue. In a haemorrhagic stroke there is bleeding into and around the brain which can damage the brain tissue.

A stroke affects each person differently and may affect different areas of the body dependant on the area of brain tissue damage/loss and the extent of this loss.

Sometimes people experience mini strokes known as Trans Ischaemic Attacks (TIA’s) and current guidance suggests that following a TIA participation in an exercise programme should be encouraged.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as stroke, where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with stroke patients involve:

  • Movement analysis
  • Upper limb function and reduction of shoulder pain
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Postural Assessments
  • Strengthening Programme
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Balance Assessments
  • Mirror Therapy

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a long term neurological condition which affects the Central Nervous System (the brain and spinal cord). It can be categorised as:

Relapsing-Remitting MS – This is the most common form of MS and is where there are periods of “flare ups” of symptoms followed by periods of recovery. The frequency, severity and endurance of symptoms can differ from person to person and from relapse to relapse.

Secondary Progressive MS - This type of MS occurs when a person with Relapsing-Remitting MS has decreased duration between relapses and disability increases.

Primary Progressive MS – This type of MS affects 10% of MS sufferers and occurs when there is no relapse and the disability increases with time.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with MS patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Stretching Programmes
  • Balance Assessments
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Fatigue Management & Pacing
  • Vestibular Rehabilitation

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative neurological condition which is the result of a reduction in dopamine levels deep within the brain tissue. Medication can often help alleviate some of the clinical symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease.

Some of the common clinical characteristics associated with Parkinson’s disease are:

  • Resting Tremor: shaking, often of the hands and arms at rest, often worse when fatigued or when medication is due
  • Bradykinesia: a slowness of movement
  • Flexed posture: often the hips, knees and trunk become more flexed, and the person may appear to stoop with their posture
  • Rigidity: stiffness and tension in the muscles making movements difficult
  • Gait disturbance: fast shuffle, small steps and freezing episodes can often occur which sometimes affects balance

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with Parkinson’s disease patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Stretching Programmes
  • Balance Assessments
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Falls Education

Motor Neurone Disease

Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is a rapidly degenerative neurological condition of which there are three types:

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): the most common type of MND which is characterised by muscle wasting and spasticity
  2. Progressive Bulbar Palsy: initially affects the muscles involved with speech and swallowing
  3. Progressive Muscular Atrophy: characterised by symmetrical muscle wasting, often starts in the upper body initially

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Motor Neurone Disease (MND), where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with MND patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Stretching Programmes
  • Respiratory assessment
  • Massage and Soft Tissue Manipulation

Brain Injury

Acquired brain injuries can affect a person’s physical and cognitive behaviours. They may present with physical, sensory, psychological and behavioural problems. The extent of the problems will depend on the area damaged and nature of injury.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Acquired Brain Injuries, where movement and behaviour may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with Acquired Brain Injury patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Balance Assessments
  • Gait Re-education
  • Coping/ Compensatory Strategies
  • Pacing Activities

Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS)

Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. This means the body’s own immune system attacks the peripheral nerves and affects their conduction. It is often characterised by a very rapid onset of muscle weakness which often occurs following an infection.

GBS affects everyone differently and the rehabilitation process is therefore specific to each individual person.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS), where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with GBS patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Stretching Programmes
  • Respiratory assessment
  • Massage and Soft Tissue Manipulation

Transverse Myelitis

Transverse Myelitis is an inflammatory neurological disorder where a segment across the spinal cord becomes inflamed at both sides. This inflammation can lead to scarring at the segmental level and the severity of scarring may affect the conduction of nerves from this level and of those below it. Symptoms of transverse myelitis will be dependent on the level of the spinal cord inflammation and the duration of the inflammation initially. Most patients with transverse myelitis experience a single attack but some may experience a recurrence.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Transverse myelitis, where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with transverse myelitis patients involve:

  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes
  • Balance Assessments
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Falls education

Balance Disorders

Balance problems can be caused by numerous factors, such as medication side effects, inner ear problems, fear of falls, dizziness, visual disturbances or problems within the balance centres within the brain.

Symptoms experienced vary from person to person and an individual assessment is always necessary to ensure the appropriate balance programme is prescribed.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as balance disorders, where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with patients who are experiencing problems with their balance involve:

  • Balance Assessments
  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes including The Otago Balance Programme
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Vestibular Rehabilitation
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Falls education

Falls

Falls become more common as we age. The risk of falling increases over the age of 65. However a fall may be due to a number of factors such as medication effects, dizziness, visual disturbances, vestibular problems, brain injury, inner ear problems and or muscular weakness. Fear of falling can also affect someone’s physical ability and confidence.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as balance disorders and falls, where movement and sensation may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with patients who are experiencing problems with their balance and who may have experienced falls involve:

  • Balance Assessments
  • Movement Analysis
  • Postural Assessment
  • Functional Rehabilitation
  • Exercise Programmes including The Otago Balance Programme
  • Sensory Assessments
  • Vestibular Rehabilitation
  • Gait analysis & Re-education
  • Falls education

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a lifelong condition which affects a person’s ability to move. It is due to hereditary factors during pregnancy, delivery, the neonatal period or the first two years of life.

CP affects people differently. Some of the problems experienced may be associated with muscle length problems, muscle control, posture and balance.

Neurological Physiotherapists specialise in the assessment and treatment of patients with neurological conditions such as Cerebral Palsy (CP), where movement may be impaired. We would aim to restore as much independence as possible and improve or maintain your quality of life. Some of the common treatment sessions with CP patients involve:

  • Advice and Education
  • Postural Assessment
  • Movement Assessment
  • Promotion of normal/optimal function and movement
  • Stretching Regime
  • Gait Analysis & Re-education