What is referencing and citing?
Citations and References are needed in your assignments to show:
- that you acknowledge the original creator of the work (be it a book, journal, website etc.);
- that you have evidence to back up your argument;
- and to enable others to investigate your area of research more fully.
Using citations and referencing properly will help you:
- avoid plagiarism, and
- increase your grades - check your marking scheme as there are marks awarded for proper referencing.
Insert a citation into the text (using whichever style of referencing you have been told to use) at the exact point where you are referring to the work. You will also need to include the full reference in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.
Full details for each style of referencing are included in the guides linked below.
University of Bradford referencing styles
Your faculty or division has a preferred referencing style. You should be given guidance as to which is the correct style for your course.
For guidance on referencing, contact your subject librarian or personal tutor. Alternatively, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brief guide to Harvard referencing
Guide to Harvard referencing
Guide to Numeric referencing
Guides by faculty and school
|Engineering and Informatics||Engineering (except Electrical Engineering); Computer Science; Media, Design and Technology||-||Download the IEEE referencing guide for Electrical Engineering from the bottom of this page.|
|Health Studies||All courses||-||-|
|Life Sciences||Archaeological Sciences; Biomedical Sciences; Optometry; Pharmacy||Chemistry; Clinical Sciences||-|
|Management and Law||Management (including Business and Law)||-||Law students should consult the brief or full OSCOLA guide. You may consult the brief OSCOLA guide notes by downloading it from the bottom of this page. There is also an International Law OSCOLA guide, the OSCOLA FAQs and OSCOLA tutorial available.|
|Social Sciences||All courses||-||-|