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What is referencing and citing?

Citations and References are needed in your assignments to show:

  • that you acknowledge the original creator of the work (be it a book, journal, website etc.);
  • that you have evidence to back up your argument;
  • and to enable others to investigate your area of research more fully.

Using citations and referencing properly will help you:

  • avoid plagiarism
  • increase your grades - check your marking scheme as there are marks awarded for proper referencing.

Insert a citation into the text (using whichever style of referencing you have been told to use) at the exact point where you are referring to the work. You will also need to include the full reference in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Full details for each style of referencing are included in the guides linked below.

Referencing style

Your faculty or division has a preferred referencing style. You should be given guidance as to which is the correct style for your course. 

For guidance on referencing, contact your subject librarian or personal tutor. Alternatively, email

University of Bradford referencing styles



Guides by Faculty/School

FacultyHarvard NumericOther style
Engineering and Informatics
  • Engineering (except Electrical Engineering)
  • Computer Science
  • Media, Design and Technology
- Electrical Engineering
Health Studies All courses - -
Life Sciences
  • Archaeological Sciences
  • Biomedical Sciences
  • Optometry
  • Pharmacy
  • Chemistry
  • Clinical Sciences
Management and Law
  • Management (Including Business and Law)


Social Sciences All courses -




EndNote software allows you to manage your references in a systematic way. You can download references and articles from databases and electronic journal services and compile bibliographies in a variety of formats.

It is available on all public cluster PCs and most departmental servers.

For further help and information about EndNote please either consult the EndNote Guide on the Library website or contact your Subject Librarian.

EndNote Web

There is a web version of EndNote available. It does not have all the functionality of the desktop version for researchers but is suitable for most undergraduate and taught postgraduate students or Distance Learners. There is information about Endnote Web from the Library website (including a workbook to help you get started).