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Guide to referencing using the Harvard style

This guide will show you how to cite and reference using the University of Bradford's Harvard style. You should use this guide as there are many variants on Harvard, this guide is the official style in use at Bradford.

The guide first covers general points of how and why you should reference.

The second section covers how to create the citations that go in the body of your work to show where all the information you use has come from.

The third section gives general guidance for creating the reference list. The next sections give detailed instructions and examples of how to reference many different kinds of information sources. It starts with the items that you are most likely to reference often (books, journal articles and webpages) and then goes on to items that are slightly less commonly used (audio and video sources, images and legal publications). Other sources are then listed alphabetically by the main heading. The next section is information on secondary referencing, that is, referencing sources you have not read. Then there is information on using EndNote®, and an example of what a reference list should look like. The final section is an alphabetical list of all of the sources referenced in this guide.

Further help

If you cannot find what you need in this guide, try the following:

General points

Basic points of the Harvard style

There are two parts to referencing using the Harvard System:

  1. Citing in the text of your work- this means acknowledging, within your text, the sources that you have used.
  2. The Reference List - this is the list of sources you have used. It is one list in alphabetical order (A-Z order). You will write it at the end of your work. It is not counted in the word count for your assignment. References are detailed descriptions of the sources from which you acquired your information.

A key piece of information is the name of the person who created your source of information. This could be the person who wrote a book or article, the person who took a photograph, the person who drew a graph, etc. The most common things you should be using are written sources, so we will use the label “author” (writer) to stand for any creator. There can also be “corporate” authors- institutions such as companies, charities, government departments, etc.

Help is available from

Books on referencing, for example:

Neville, C. (2010) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. Open University Press.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 9th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

EndNote®

This is a program designed to help you format and organise your references, and add citations and references automatically to Word documents. For information about how to obtain and use EndNote, see the library's Endnote pages

Please use the Output Style: Harvard (Brad), because this matches the University of Bradford guidelines. If you do not see this in your choice of styles, try logging in to Endnote Online on campus. If this does not work, speak to your subject librarian.

If you add items to your EndNote library by uploading them from Summon or a database, they should have all the pieces of information needed to create a correct citation and reference. If you need to manually create records in EndNote, you will need to choose what sort of item you are using so that EndNote will give you the correct fields to fill in. There is a note by each kind of reference in this document telling you which Reference Type to use for it in EndNote.

The field to enter the web address of any online source in an EndNote record is called URL.

Sometimes you will need to correct the output of Endnote by manually editing it. See the manually editing Endote section on how to do this.

Frequently asked questions

Why do I have to reference?

When you refer to another piece of work you must always acknowledge the source of that information. This is

  • To avoid plagiarism.
  • To give appropriate credit to the person who did the work you are using.
  • To enable a reader to trace your sources and follow up your work.
  • To enable a reader to distinguish your ideas from someone else’s and show the range of your reading.
  • To demonstrate the evidence supporting your arguments; this supports your ideas and theories and adds credibility.

The rules for how to reference are all there to support these principles, and to make sure that your references are clear and consistent so that it is easy for someone reading your work to follow them. It is more important to get the spirit of giving credit for other people’s work right than to make sure all your commas are in the right places.

What do and don’t I have to reference?

You reference all the information you take in from your reading and use to build your work, whether you quote it exactly or put your understanding of it in your own words (paraphrase it).

You don’t have to reference:

  • Data that you get from your own experiments- provided this is the first time you are presenting them.
  • Your own ideas and conclusions.
  • Facts that are generally known and undisputed.

Some students are nervous that they might come up with similar ideas to someone without knowing it. You could do a search to find out if anybody has published something like your idea, reference their work, and then discuss how your idea is different from theirs. Students can also worry about which facts are “generally known”; you should be able to search and easily find several people talking about the well-known fact, so you can reference them to show that it is commonly talked about.

I'm not sure how to reference this thing I've used. Might I get in trouble for a badly done reference? Should I just leave it out?

You do need to provide a reference to anything that you have taken information from. If you make a good try at a reference (following the pattern of how references generally work in your subject), you might lose a mark or two for not getting it exactly right, but if you leave the reference out you will definitely be concealing a source, which is a form of plagiarism.

Try to construct a reference for your source, giving enough information to enable your lecturer to trace the source.

How do I find the information to write a reference?

It can often be difficult to locate the pieces of information you need for your reference, especially for electronic resources. Try the following sources:

For books

If you have the book to hand, use the title page and copyright statement to find the author and publication details, plus the contents page for book chapters.

Alternatively, the library search gives you all the information you need to reference a book.

If the book is not on our catalogue, try COPAC the combined catalogue of the 90 biggest research libraries in the UK.

For journal articles

All the information you need should be at the top of first page of the article, or sometimes at the foot of the first page. Sometimes information such as issue numbers is omitted from PDF versions of articles. In that case you should look at the HTML version or the search page of the database in which you found the article.

For electronic resources

If you can’t find a publication date, you can use the ‘last updated’ date at the foot of the page.

Look at the web address in the bar at the top of your browser– this will often give you the publishing organisation. For example, https://www.bradford.ac.uk/external is the University of Bradford’s homepage.

If you can’t tell much about the website from the page you are on, visit their home page or About Us page to find out who they are.

If you can’t find a title, use the heading of the browser window.

For all sources

Type the details you have into Google. Someone will usually have referenced the source before you! Bear in mind you will have to change the referencing style, but this should help you find the relevant information.

If I read a book that draws from another author’s work and I want to use that information, how do I cite and reference it?

Pears and Shields (2010: 8) explain this as “In some cases you will read a source that refers to the work of someone else, known as a secondary source. Preferably you should find and read the item referred to. However, where this is not possible and you still wish to include the work referred to, you can mention it as a citation, known as secondary referencing.”

For example, you may read a book that brings together lots of different theories about a topic to give students an overview. If you just want to mention that there are a lot of different theories, you can refer to the textbook, but if you need to use one of the theories in depth, you should track down and read the original theorist’s work so that you know you are getting their full ideas, not just a shortened and reworked version.

If you can’t get hold of an original source, it is possible to use “Secondary referencing” to show what you have read. See the section on Citing secondary sources for how to create the citation in the body of your work, and see Secondary references for how to write the reference.

It varies between subjects how important it is to only read primary sources, and therefore how acceptable it is to use secondary referencing. If you have questions, it is best to check with one of your lecturers.

There are times when you don’t have to use secondary referencing. For example, if you read a biography of a scientist, the writer has assembled their information about the scientist from lots of different sources, but you can just point to the one that you have read, the biography.

If I read a book that is not in English, how do I cite and reference it?

See the section on Non-English and translated sources under Referencing other sources.

What if there is no name on something I read?

You still need to show that you are using something you did not originally create. You can put in the author's name as 'Anonymous'. This includes images, websites, statistics and computer code. You may also have a source where the author is an organisation, for instance, a report written by a government department. In these cases it is fine to use the organisation as an author. For more information, see the Corporate authors section of Citing within the text of written work

Everyone knows this, do I really need to reference it?

'Common knowledge' is basic things that anybody might know and there is no need to say where you learnt it. It can be difficult to tell if something is 'common knowledge' or not.

  • To avoid plagiarism, if you have had to look something up, it is safer to assume it is not common knowledge and to tell us where you found it.
  • Things that your lecturers say in lectures are usually common knowledge for your subject.
  • If you are not sure whether something is 'common knowledge', try and find a source to back up your information.

Why do I need to reference facts?

There are two reasons why you need to give references for statistics, results from experiments, and other sources that are factual information. One reason is that somebody else did the work to discover and prove those facts, or did all the calculations to provide the statistics. If you do not reference, you look like you are trying to claim that you discovered this information yourself when in fact you simply read the results of someone else's work.

The other reason is about the reliability of whatever you are quoting. How does your lecturer know that the fact you are talking about is accurate? If you tell us where you found out this information, the person marking your work can look at the source of the data and be sure that it is a good academic source.

Can I reference my own previous work?

If your work was original research, for instance, experimental data or a survey, you may reference it as you would any other source.

Re-reading the sources you used in a previous assignment is fine, as long as you put in the work to interpret what you read in the context of the new assignment, and write new content based on the sources. If you do this, you simply reference the sources in the standard way.

You must not cut and paste from previously submitted work as this is counted as plagiarism.

Citing within the text of written work

When you refer to another document you must acknowledge this within the text of your work, by citing the author’s surname and the year of publication (in round brackets).

For example:

Health care research is becoming ever more interprofessional and multi-disciplinary (Holloway 2005).

Although the observer’s presence can also affect the validity of the data (Parahoo 2006) the effect can be reduced when…

Parfitt (2007: 100) stated that “nursing practice is constantly changing to accommodate the needs of individual societies”.

This allows whoever is reading your work to identify the source of your information by following up the authors name in your reference list.

You must cite in your text every time you refer to a source. For example, if you quote from your textbook on the first page of your assignment and then again on the second page, you must cite it in both places.

Web documents and electronic journal articles should be cited in the text in the same way as books and journal articles.

Practical points

If the author's name appears naturally in the text, the year follows in brackets.

For example:

Morgan (2003) suggests that informed consent should include a discussion of…

As long as the author's name is acknowledged in the text you do not have to cite it again within the brackets.

Do I include page numbers in the citation?

If you quote the exact words of your source, or copy an image, table or illustration, you need to include the page number where you found your quotation. You put the page number in after the year in your citation, separated by a colon : .

If you paraphrase (put the information from the source into your own words) you do not need to include the page number.

A direct quotation example:

‘The engineer is the driver of engineering design. To achieve engineering success, an engineer needs to understand and avoid potential failures that may occur down the road’ (Wang and Roush 2000: 1).

A paraphrased example:

An engineer may have to overcome failure to achieve success (Wang and Roush 2000).

If you are directly quoting from a web page you may not be able to include a page number (however, if the Web page is a PDF it will usually have page numbering so the page number should be given in the citation for direct quotes).

If you use EndNote to do your citations and references, you will need to edit the citation so it includes the page number. See Manually editing EndNote citations or references for how to do this.

NOTE: In certain subjects, such as archaeological sciences, you should add the page number to the citation to all book references unless it is an edited book or if you are using a very general piece of information covered by the whole book.

Multiple authors

If there are two or fewer authors all of their names must be cited in the text.

For example:

Bristow and Berek (2006) conclude that…

or

… this conclusion has been drawn before (Bristow and Berek 2006).

et al.

If there are three or more authors then only the first author (the author who appears first on the title page of the book, or is listed first at the beginning of a journal article) is cited, followed by et al. You will need to list ALL the authors in the reference list.

For example:

Jones et al. (2007) looked at nurse prescribing in mental health care and found…

or

Mental health care may be a good field for nurse prescribing, Jones et al. (2007) suggest.

Unknown author

If you cannot identify an author for the source you want to cite, you can cite and reference it using the title in place of the author’s name, or use Anonymous to stand in for the name. Some anonymous sources, such as editorials in journals, are acceptable to use in academic work, so using the title in place of the author’s name adds credibility to your reference.

For example:

A report on the environment’s impact on health (Anonymous 2007: 2052) says “these deaths are due to just 2 factors: lack of clean water and the effects of indoor air pollution”.

Online sources may provide useful information (Basic sciences: anatomy 2014)

If a source is entirely anonymous, for example a website with no author, you need to judge whether it’s worth including in your academic work-  how do you know it’s accurate?

There are some exceptions to the general rules on dealing with unknown authors, for example, for laws or sacred texts. You will see rules for how to deal with these later in the document.

Note for EndNote users: If there is no author, Endnote will automatically give the author as Anonymous. If you do not want this you will have to edit the reference (see Manually editing EndNote citations or references) so that the title of the publication appears in the Author field as well as in the Title field.

Corporate authors

The names of organisations, institutions, government departments etc. may also be cited in the text as authors. These are known as corporate authors.

For example:

Feedback from patients is vital for improvements in quality of care (Healthcare Commission 2005).

Abbreviations can be used for Corporate Authors, for example BACCH for British Association for Community Child Health.

The first time you refer to that corporate author by initials in the text you need to spell out the full name in your sentence. Having spelled out the name in full the first time, you can use the abbreviation in further citations of the same document. (The reference in the Reference List needs to match your citations.)

For example:

The British Association for Community Child Health (BACCH 2005) states that Community paediatricians have a number of statutory duties.

This also applies to abbreviated titles such as the BNF.

For example:

It is noted in the British National Formulary (BNF) that mefloquine can cause tachycardia (BNF 71 2016)

You could also start your document with a glossary of the full meaning of all the abbreviations used in your document and then refer to them by the abbreviations throughout.

Note for EndNote users: EndNote is confused by corporate authors. To make them display properly, you need to edit the record in your EndNote library (see Manually editing EndNote citations or references) to add a comma at the end of the organisation’s name. This fools EndNote into thinking the whole name is an author’s surname, and it then appears properly in your citation and reference. For example: for the Healthcare Commission, the author field in EndNote should read “Healthcare Commission,”.

Unknown date

If you cannot find the date that an item was created, you should use (no date) in place of the year. If you can make a guess at the approximate date, you could use this, for example (1875?).

For example:

Josephus (no date) is a contemporary source on Roman Judea.

The dates of some of Shakespeare’s plays are uncertain, such as Love’s Labours Lost (Shakespeare 1598?)

Citing things that you created

Your own photographs or other images

If you are using photographs you took or images you have created, include wording in the image caption that makes it clear that this is your own work (such as “Source: Author”). There is no need to put anything in the reference list. Your lecturers might ask you to include a list of images after the contents page or as an appendix to the document.

Your own research or other unpublished work of yours

You may need to do this if you want to draw on work you did in another module or at another university- if you have some experimental results or ideas that you used before, you should cite them, then mention them as briefly as possible as a background for the work you did on this assignment, because resubmitting work is plagiarism. You should cite yourself as an author in exactly the same way as you would do any other creator, with your surname and the date you created the work see the Theses, dissertations or unpublished research section of Referencing other types of source for how to write the reference.

Citing more than one source in the same sentence

Where you cite more than one reference at the same point in the text, cite them in chronological order.

For example:

Voss (2004), McArdle (2006) and Moret (2007) all show….

Or

This can cause distress (Voss 2004; McArdle 2006; Moret 2007)

If you want to do this and some of your sources were published in the same year, list those ones alphabetically.

For example:

Adams (2004), Voss (2004), and Moret (2007) all show….

Or

This can cause distress (Adams 2004; Voss 2004; Moret 2007)

Citing multiple works by the same author from the same year

If you cite more than one work by the same author with the same publication year, the first to appear in your reference list will have a lower case a after the date, the second will have a b and so on.

This also applies if you have used articles with two or more authors, so you will be citing them with the first author’s name and "et al". The first author is the same in both articles so you need to distinguish  which article you are citing, so use a and b.

For example:

Medical technology may cause patients physical and emotional distress (Johns 2005a). Johns (2005b) also considers monitoring to be….

Janaway et al. (2009b) argue that…

It has been shown that (Janaway et al. 2009 a and b)

Citing secondary sources

Whenever possible, you should track down the original source and read it yourself. However, if this is not possible, you can cite secondary sources like this:

Give the names of the original author(s), then indicate that you have taken your information from a source that quoted them, not directly. The words “cited in” are usually used to do this. Then cite the authors of the book you have actually read, and the page number where they used the original creators’ work.

For example:

Brechin (2000, cited in McCabe and Timmins 2006: 57) argues that professional development …

Handy and Spangler (2007: 793) use a table that has been modified from the data of Robertson and Campanella (1983) to illustrate the friction angle of sand related to cone bearing value.

(See the section on Secondary references for how to write the reference).

EndNote cannot create a correct citation for a secondary reference; you will have to edit your sentence manually after you use EndNote to put in the citation for the source that you have read.

Guidance for creating the reference list

The reference list appears at the end of your work and the references should be listed in one sequence in alphabetical order of the author’s surname.

The reference list consists of full references to the sources you have used to produce your work. The first two parts of the reference, (the author’s surname and the date) provide the link to the citation you made in the text.

In general

The following instructions apply to all kinds of material that you might reference.

  • The references must be listed in alphabetical order by the names of the authors (that is, in the usual A-Z listing order of the alphabet as used in English. If you do not know this order, see the Alphabetical Order heading in Library Language.
  • However, do not change the author order which the authors chose! What we mean by “listing in alphabetical order” is: If you see an article and the authors are given as “Smith J. and Jones T.”, you leave Smith first in your citation and reference, and this reference will be listed in the alphabetical reference list by the S at the beginning of Smith.
  • Always write the surname (family name) of each author first followed by initials of personal names.
  • You must list all of the authors of each piece of work in the reference list. (Your reference list is not included in your word count).
  • If you have several works by the same author in the same year, sort them by second author (if present) then title. The first to appear in your reference list will have the letter "a" after the date, the second will have "b" and so on. Use these letters when you are citing these sources in the text of your work.

HINT: You can use the sort button (it has the letters AZ and an arrow) in Word to sort your list for you.

  • If you cannot find an author, an editor, or an organisation name (corporate author), use the title of the item in place of the author’s name or cite the work as Anonymous.
  • If you cannot find a date put (no date).
  • Titles are written in “sentence case”- that is, you only use a capital letter for the first word in the title (except words that usually have capital letters in English, like people’s names, place names, and the names of organisations.)
  • ‘Place of publication’ means town or city. Not country, and not street address.
  • You will often see the information in a different order on a journal article PDF, or in an article’s “cite as” suggestion, or on the cover of a book, from how we show it here. Make sure you don’t just copy this into your reference, but change it so that it follows the rules of the Harvard style.
  • A common change you will need to make is that the author’s name may be given in the order ‘personal name then surname’- for example, “Chris Smith”- and you will need to change it to the correct format, ‘surname then initial of personal name’ – for example, “Smith, C.”.
  • There are online reference generators. If you use one of these, check the references it creates and edit them if they do not match the guidelines in this document.
  • The EndNote output style Harvard (Brad) has been set up to match this document.

Referencing electronic sources

There are some general points to consider when citing and referencing electronic documents:

    1. You must give enough information for your source to be traced in the future.
    2. You should cite the date the document was last updated, if you can find this date, and the date you accessed the document.
    3. It is useful to include a publisher, that is, the organisation that runs the website. However if you cannot find this you can leave it out.
    4. If you find journal articles via the internet or indexing databases, you should cite the journal as your source of information, not the webpage or database.

I need to reference something that isn’t in this document

There is a pattern to all references; they will always start with the author’s name, the date, the title, and then other details to help your reader track down what you have used. You can often build your own reference by looking at the item you have and deciding what bits of information will be useful to your reader.

There are more examples of references for different kinds of source in books on referencing, such as these:

Neville, C. (2010) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. Open University Press.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 9th edition. Palgrave Macmillan.

Please be aware that the styles given in these books, and by online reference generators (except Endnote) will not exactly match the University of Bradford style, so you will need to modify their examples.

Or ask your subject librarian for help.

Referencing books and book chapters

Books

A reference to a book or another printed work such as a pamphlet will look like this: 

Author (Date) Title. Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Burns, N. and Grove, S.K. (2005) The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique, and utilization. 5th edition. Elsevier Saunders.

Johnson, G., Hill-Smith, I. and Ellis, C. (editors) (2006) The minor illness manual. Abingdon: Radcliffe.

ACI Committee (2008) Report on measurements of workability and rheology of fresh concrete, 238. Farmington Hills: American Concrete Institute.

BNF 71 (2016) London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Burns and Grove (2005) or (Burns and Grove 2005); ACI Committee (2008) or (ACI Committee 2008).

Example of citing in the text of your work for a direct quote: give the page number: Burns and Grove (2005: 32).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Note: The first reference you make in the body of the text to the BNF should spell it out in full, e.g. (BNF: British National Formulary 2016). See the Corporate Authors section of the Citing within the text of written work section.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author’s initial(s), not their full personal name(s). If you have editors rather than authors, add the word (editors).
  2. The year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. The title of the book: the subtitle if it has one, which must all be in italics.
  4. The edition, if it is not the first edition. For example, 2nd edition or revised edition.
  5. (This is optional) The city or town of publication followed by a colon:
  6. The publisher.

This information should be taken from the front (or back) of the title page, not the book cover.

Note: If you are just referring to one chapter in an edited book, use the rule for Chapters in books.

Note: The city or town of publication is optional. You can include the information if it helps to distinguish the book you are referencing from similarly named works. This is especially useful when referencing historic works. However, if it is a modern work with many places of publication, that information can be omitted.

Note: In certain subjects, such as archaeological sciences, you should add the page number to the citation to all book references unless it is an edited book or if you are using a very general piece of information covered by the whole book.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book

Electronic books

Electronic books should be cited in your text like other books, except that if you are using a direct quote and the book does not have page numbers, you should use the information you do have – for example, location number or percentage.

A reference to an electronic book will look like this:

Author(s) or Editor(s) (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Web address and date accessed (only use these if you download the whole book from a website).

Examples of references

Fergus, H.A. (2004) Montserrat: History of a Caribbean colony. 2nd edition. Oxford: Macmillan/Kindle.

Rivenberg, R.H. (1914) A review of algebra. American Book Company. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/38536 Accessed 10 August 2015.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Fergus (2004) or (Fergus 2004)

Examples of citing in the text of your work for a direct quote, with page numbers or location numbers: Smith (2015: 219) or (Smith 2015: 219); Fergus (2004: location 1054) or (Fergus 2004: location 1054); Muller (2010: 77% into book) or (Muller 2010: 77% into book).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Note: If you downloaded the book on to an e-reader and therefore it doesn’t have page numbers, you can include the type of device in the Publisher section to make it clear that it is an ebook: for example Macmillan/Kindle.

 Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

    1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author’s initial(s), not their full personal name(s).
    2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
    3. Title: subtitle if it has one, which must be in italics.
    4. Edition number, if it is not the first edition. For example, 2nd edition.
    5. (This is optional.) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
    6. Publisher.

If you read or downloaded the whole book from a website:

7. Web address

8.“Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the book.

EndNote Reference Type – use Electronic Book

EndNote cannot cope with location numbers instead of page numbers; you will need to edit your citation by hand (see Manually editing EndNote® citations or references.)

Chapters in books

This is for use with books where different chapters are written by different people, and an editor pulls the whole book together. If the same people wrote the book all the way through, use the rules for referencing Books.

A reference to a chapter in an edited book must include the author, date and title of the chapter, followed by the word “In”, followed by a full reference for the book in which it’s published, and finally the page numbers of the chapter. Editor(s) are distinguished from authors by adding the word “editor” for a single editor and “editors” for multiple editors. (An editor is different from an author: the author writes a single chapter, then the editor gathers the chapters together to form a book.)

A reference to a chapter within an edited book will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title of chapter or section. In Editor(s). (the word “editor(s)”) Title of book. Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Start page-end page of chapter.

Examples of references

Boud, D. and Walker, D. (2003) Barriers to reflection on experience. In Downie, C. M. and Basford, P. (editors) Mentoring in practice. University of Greenwich Press. 261-273.

Blane, D. (2006) The life course, the social gradient, and health. In Marmot, M. (editor) Social determinants of health. Oxford: Open University Press. 54-77.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Boud and Walker (2003) or (Boud and Walker 2003).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the chapter/section. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the chapter/section.
  4. The word “In”
  5. Editor(s) or corporate author(s) of the book. Use family name, then initial(s).
  6. The word “(editor(s))” inside brackets
  7. Title of the book, which must be in italics
  8. Edition number, if it is not the first edition. For example, 2nd edition.
  9. (This is optional) Town or city of publication followed by a colon:
  10. Publisher.
  11. First and last page numbers of the chapter/section (separated by a dash -).

EndNote Reference Type – use Book Section

Book series

You may encounter thematic series of books, such as the British Archaeological Reports or the Ecological Studies series.

A reference for a book that is part of a book series will look like:

Author(s) or Editor(s) (Year) Title. Book series name and the number of this book. Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Gaffney, V., Fitch, S. and Smith, D. (2009) Europe’s lost world: the rediscovery of Doggerland. CBA research report 154. York: Council for British Archaeology.

Verhoeven, J. (2006) Wetlands and natural resource management. Ecological studies 190. Berlin: Springer.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Gaffney et al. (2009) or (Gaffney et al 2009).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author’s initial(s), not full first name(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. The name of the book series and the book’s number within the series.
  5. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  6. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  7. Publisher.
EndNote Reference Type – use Book

Chapters in book series

You may come across an edited volume (that is, one in which the chapters are written by different authors) which is also part of a series. Your reference needs to give the details of the chapter first, then the word “In”, then the details of the book, then the details of the series.

A reference to a chapter from a book in a series will look like:

Author(s) (Year) Chapter or section title. In Editor(s) (editors) Book Title. Book series title and the number of the book. Place ofpublication (this is optional): Publisher, page numbers of chapter.

Example of reference

McCarthy, M.R. (2000) Prehistoric settlement in northern Cumbria. In Harding, J. and Johnston, R. (editors) Northern pasts: interpretations of the later prehistory of Northern England and Southern Scotland. British archaeological reports British series 302. Oxford: Archaeopress, 131-140.

Example of citing in the text of your work: McCarthy (2000) or (McCarthy 2000).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the chapter/section. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. The title of the chapter/section.
  4. In
  5. Editor(s) of the book. Family name, initial(s).
  6. The word (editor) or (editors) in brackets
  7. The title of the book, which must be in italics
  8. The name of the book series and the book’s number within the series.
  9. (This is optional) Town or city of publication followed by a colon:
  10. Publisher.
  11. The first and last page numbers of the chapter/section.
EndNote Reference Type – use Book Section

Referencing journal articles

Journal articles

A reference to a journal article will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Article title. Journal Title Volume(Issue), Page numbers.

Examples of references

Foreman, J. L. and Gubbins, E. J. (2015) Teachers see what ability scores cannot: predicting student performance with challenging mathematics. Journal of advanced academics 26(1), 5-23.

Johnes, M. (2008) A prince, a king, and a referendum: rugby, politics, and nationhood in Wales, 1969–1979. Journal of British studies 47, 129-148.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Foreman and Gubbins (2015) or (Foreman and Gubbins 2015).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

If you find it difficult to work out what bits of information are the author’s names, article title and journal title, you can email your subject librarian with the information you have and ask how to tell what to use where.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the journal, which must be in italics
  5. Volume and issue number (issue number in brackets).
  6. First and last page numbers of the article (separated by a dash -).

Notes:

  • You may see an “issue” called a ‘part’ or ‘number’ instead; it may be shown with a number, a month name, or a letter. All of those are ways of showing which bit of the volume you are looking at. For example, you may see “Volume 5, issue 6”; “Volume 5, number 6”, or “or “Volume 5, part 6”. All these mean the same thing and should be referenced as 5(6). If you see “Volume 5, June issue” you reference it as 5(June). “Volume 5, supplement VI” is referenced as 5(supp VI).
  • You can usually find the issue number and volume on the front cover of a physical journal, or towards the top of a PDF of an online journal article.
  • Some journals have strange-looking page numbers such as “e240-249”. Include these in your reference as the journal gives them.
  • If you cannot find an author for a journal article (for instance in an editorial), you can either use the name of the journal as the author or cite it as “Anonymous”.
EndNote Reference Type – use Journal Article

Electronic journal articles

Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed journal article.

You should only use this electronic journal article format when the journal:

  • Has no volume, issue and page numbers, or
  • Is not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure)

or when the article is “forthcoming”, “in press” or “online ahead of print”, so that it is available electronically but has not yet been given a place in a print issue and assigned page numbers. In that case you put “Epub ahead of print” where the volume, issue and page numbers normally go.

A reference to an electronic journal article will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Article title. Journal title. Volume(Issue), Page numbers. Web address/DOI and date accessed.

Examples of references

License, S., Smith, R., McGuigan M.P. and Earnest, C.P. (2015) Gait pattern alterations during walking, texting and walking and texting during cognitively distractive tasks while negotiating common pedestrian obstacles. PLOS one 0133281 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133281 Accessed 12 August 2015.

Heyden, M. L. M., Sidhu, J. S. and Volberda, H. W. (2018) The conjoint influence of top and middle management characteristics on management innovation. Journal of management. Epub ahead of print. http://jom.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/0149206315614373v1 Accessed 12 October 2017.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Heyden et al. (2018) or (Heyden et al. 2018).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the journal, which must be in italics.
  5. Volume number and issue number, if available (issue number in brackets).
  6. First and last page numbers of the article, if available (separated by a dash -).
  7. Web address, or doi if available
  8. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the article.

EndNote Reference Type – use Electronic Journal Article

Sections of journal articles

For appendices or forewords written by different authors to the main body of the article.

A reference to a portion of a journal article will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title of this author’s contribution, Page numbers of the part of the article in Author(s) of article. Article title. Journal title Volume (Issue), Page numbers of article.

Example of reference

Bond, J. and Worley, F. (2004) Cremated animal bone, 79-81 in Richards, J.D. Excavations at the Viking barrow cemetery at Heath Wood, Ingleby, Derbyshire. Antiquarians journal 84, 23-116.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Bond and Worley (2004) or (Bond and Worley 2004).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the part you are using. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of this author’s contribution to the article,
  4. First and last page numbers of this author’s contribution to the article.
  5. The word “in”
  6. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  7. Title of the article.
  8. Title of the journal, which must be in italics
  9. The volume and issue number (issue number in brackets).
  10. First and last page numbers of the article (separated by a dash -).

EndNote Reference Type – use Journal Article

EndNote cannot create a correct article section reference - you will need to edit the reference manually (see Manually updating Endnote citations or references) We suggest using the section authors as the authors’ names in the EndNote record (as this is what you need the citation to be) but otherwise to use the details of the whole article, then edit the Word document to add the section title, the section page numbers, and the article authors’ names.

Referencing web pages and other online sources

Web pages and web documents

This is the rule for referencing ordinary text-based webpages.

To find an author, try the bottom of the webpage, or the homepage or “about us” or “contact us” pages of the website.

The “publisher” of a webpage is the organisation that is responsible for the page. It is an optional piece of information, but if a webpage has a personal author who is writing on behalf of an organisation, it can be useful to give the name of the publisher to show that they are a reliable source.

A webpage reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Healthcare Commission (2005) Local Health Services Primary Care Trust (PCT) survey. Healthcare Commission. http://ratings2005.healthcarecommission.org.uk/downloads/4284c.pdf Accessed 6 June 2014.

University of Bradford Library (2017) What is referencing and citing? University of Bradford. http://www.bradford.ac.uk/library/help/referencing/ Accessed 1 September 2017.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Healthcare Commission (2005) or (Healthcare Commission 2005).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s). Alternatively, the corporate author of the document, that is, the organisation that writes and updates the website.
  2. Year of publication or the date the website was last updated (in round brackets). If you cannot find a date use (no date).
  3. Title of the document, which must be in italics (or the first few words of the document if the title is not clear).
  4. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified).
  5. Web address.
  6. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the webpage.

EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page

Electronic sources apart from ordinary web pages

Blog posts

A reference to a blog post will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher. Web address and date accessed.

Example of reference

Barnes, A. (2006) Enzyme could help Celiac Disease patients tolerate gluten:10 September. The Dermatitis Herpetiformis Online Community Blog. http://www.dermatitisherpetiformis.org.uk/dhocblog/2006/09/enzyme-could-help-celiac-disease.html Accessed 28 June 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Barnes (2006) or (Barnes, 2006).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s name(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s), or the screen name as given on the weblog.
  2. Year the post was put up on the blog site (in round brackets).
  3. Title of message: Day and month of the posted message, all in italics.
  4. Publisher- this should be the name of the blog.
  5. Web address
  6. “Accessed” then the date you looked at the post.

EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page

For the full date that the blog entry was posted to display correctly, enter it into the Last Update Date field in your EndNote record.

Computer games

A reference to a game will look like:

Author (Year) Title. [Computer game] Distributor OR Web address and date accessed/downloaded.

Examples of references

Blizzard Entertainment (2007) World of Warcraft. [Computer game] http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/games/wow Downloaded 12 December 2012.

Nintendo (2008) Wii Fit. [Computer game] Nintendo UK.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Blizzard Entertainment (2007) or (Blizzard Entertainment 2007).

It is often useful to mention the name of the game as well as the company’s name when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation. (For example: “An MMORPG like World of Warcraft (Blizzard Entertainment 2007) has little in common with the original Wii Fit game from Nintendo (2008) except its popularity”).

It is difficult to cite a particular point within a game- word the sentence to describe it as best you can, for example by mentioning the level.

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author (if given) - use family name followed by initial, or the corporate author- the organisation that created the game (give the name as listed on the version of the game you have).
  2. Date (if given) (in round brackets).
  3. Title of game, which must be in italics.
  4. [Computer game] in square brackets.

 For console/cartridge games:

 5. Distributor.

For online or downloadable games:

 5. Web address

 6.“Accessed” OR “Downloaded” followed by the date you accessed or downloaded the game.

EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page, add “Computer game” in the Type of Medium section

Databases, online data and statistics

If you use a database to find journal articles, you reference the journal article and do not mention the database.

If you use a database to group together data to create a report or set of statistics, use the template for webpages. Put the criteria you used to create the data into the title section, and use the web address of the database.

Example of reference

FAME: Financial Analysis Made Easy (2015) Compilation derived from: Company Annual Reports: PC World; Currys; UniEuro. Bureau Van Dijk Electronic Publishers. https://fame.bvdinfo.com/ Accessed 22 April 2016.

Example of citing in the text of your work: FAME (2015) or (FAME 2015).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations

EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page

Mobile apps

A reference to an app for a phone or tablet will look like:

Author (Year) App name. [Mobile app] Web address and date accessed.

 Example of reference

3 Sided Cube (2014) Eye Check by Boots Opticians. [Mobile app] https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cube.bec&hl=en_GBand iTunes Store.Accessed 20 March 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (3 Sided Cube, 2014) or 3 Sided Cube (2014)

 It is difficult to cite a particular point within an app. Word the sentence to describe it as clearly as possible. A screenshot may be useful- cite it like an image from a webpage (see Online images for the rules for doing this).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s name (use family name followed by initials) or the corporate author, the organisation that created the app
  2. Date of publication (year the app was created or last updated, in brackets).
  3. Name of the app, which must be in italics.
  4. [Mobile app] in square brackets
  5. Web address where the app was downloaded from. If the app is an Apple one, only available from the ITunes Store, there will not be a Web address available: in this case put “iTunes Store”.
  6. The date you accessed the app.
EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page, add “Mobile app” in the Type of Medium section

If the app is from the iTunes store only and does not have a web address, put “iTunes store” into the URL field in the EndNote record.

Tweets

A tweet reference will look like this:

Twitter name (Year) Full text of tweet. Publisher (this is optional). Date tweet was posted. Web address and date accessed.

Example of reference

@NHSChoices (2014) High-salt diet linked to 1.6 million heart deaths. NHS Choices. 15 Aug 2014. https://twitter.com/NHSChoices/status/500201489168875520 Accessed 15 Aug 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (@NHSChoices 2014) or @NHSChoices (2014)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work  for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s Twitter name (@ name)
  2. Date of publication (year the message was sent, in brackets).
  3. Full text of the tweet, in italics.
  4. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified)- for a tweet from an organisation, this will be the organisation’s name, which should be in the Twitter bio.
  5. Date the tweet was posted.
  6. Web address.
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you read the tweet.

EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page.

In order for the full date that the tweet was sent to display correctly, enter it into the Last Update Date field in your EndNote record.

Wikis

A wiki is a collaborative web site which can be amended by any contributor. The information given cannot be relied on. You should generally not cite information from a wiki in academic work, and if you do use information from a wiki it should be backed up with supporting evidence from peer reviewed or trusted articles, journals or books.

If you have a good reason to reference a page from a wiki, follow the rules for referencing Webpages and web documents, using the name of the wiki as the author.

For Blackboard wikis, give the name and code of the module in which the wiki is located. Give the Blackboard home page as the web address (a direct link to the module will only work for people registered on that module). 

A reference to a wiki page will look like:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Blackboard Wiki (2009) Complementary Medicine: page for module HN-0215D Therapeutic Interventions and Older People. http://blackboard.brad.ac.uk/ Accessed 3 June 2014.

Wikipedia (2017) Jane of England. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Lady_Jane_Grey#Jane_of_England  Accessed 31 May 2017.

Example of citing in the text of your work: The edit war is an interesting phenomenon of collaborative online working; see, for example, Wikipedia (2017).

 
See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.
 
EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page

Referencing audio and video sources

Online video

Use this template only for video that was originally created and uploaded for the website that hosts it.

  • If the item is a work by a named director and studio then reference it as a Film (see the Films section).
  • If it is a television programme made for made for online distribution such as an Amazon Prime series, reference it as a television programme (see Episodes of a television programme).
  • If it is a television programme that was not originally made for the web and has since been uploaded, reference it as a television programme (see Episodes of a television programme).

A reference to an online video, for example a YouTube video,  will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. [Video] Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Farrell, D. (2012) How to HDR timelapse. [Video] https://vimeo.com/38838557 Accessed 13 August 2015.

King’s Fund (2013) An alternative guide to the new NHS in England. [Video] King’s Fund. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CSp6HsQVtw Accessed 15 August 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: King’s Fund (2013) or (King’s Fund 2013).

If you are talking about a specific moment in the video, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the video: the contribution of water damage can be seen at 2m33s in to the video (BarWGrl 2009).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), or corporate author(s) (if they can be identified). Use family name, followed by initial(s). This can be the screen name or user name of the person who posted the video.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the video, which must be in italics.
  4. [Video] in square brackets.
  5. (This is optional) Publisher, for example production company.
  6. Web address.
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you saw the video.
EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page, add “Video” in the Type of Medium section

Films

Include works by a named director and studio which are available in any format (DVD/Blu-Ray, online via a streaming service, etc). Include short films.

A film reference will look like this:

Director (Year) Title [Film] Country: Studio name.

Example of reference

Welles, O. (1941) Citizen Kane [Film] USA: RKO Radio Pictures.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Welles (1941) or (Welles 1941)

To cite in your text when you are talking about a specific moment in the film, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the film: …compare the framing at 18m05s and at 87m54s (Welles 1941).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Director’s name. Use family name, followed by initial(s)
  2. Year of production (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the film, which must be in italics.
  4. [Film] in square brackets
  5. Country of production:
  6. Name of Studio.

EndNote Reference Type – use Film Or Broadcast, add “Film” in the Medium section.

In order for the reference to display properly, the name of the studio needs to be in the Distributor field in your EndNote record.

Episodes of a television programme

This includes live television, episodes watched on DVD or Blu-Ray, episodes made for TV and watched on a catch-up or streaming service, and also programmes made for online distribution such as Amazon Prime series.

A TV programme reference will look like this:

Director, Producer or Writer (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number [Television programme] Programme/series title. Channel, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

Moffat, S. (2012) Asylum of the Daleks, series 7, episode 2 [Television programme] Doctor Who. BBC One, 1 September.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Moffat (2012) or (Moffat 2012)

It is often useful to mention the name of the programme as well as the episode when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation.

If you are talking about a specific moment in the video, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the programme: … the framing of the first shot of the damaged Dalek at 16m03s (Moffat 2012)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Director, producer or scriptwriter of the episode- use family name followed by initials of personal name
  2. Year of first broadcast (in round brackets).
  3. Title of episode, series number and episode number if known, all in italics)
  4. [Television programme] in square brackets
  5. Title of programme/series.
  6. Name of channel.
  7. First broadcast date (Day and month).

If it is an online programme:

 8. Web address.

9.“Accessed” followed by the date you saw the video.

EndNote Reference Type – Film Or Broadcast, add “Television programme” in the Medium section.

To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the programme in to the Series Title field.

A particular section within a television programme

For example, an interview or feature- something that was a recognisably separate section in a show.

A reference to a section within a television programme will look like:

Presenter and main contributor(s) (Year) Section title In: Episode title, series number, episode number (if known) [Television programme] Series title. Channel, day and month first broadcast.

Examples of references

Wark, K. and Osbourne, G. (2015) Interview with Chancellor of the Exchequer [Television programme] Newsnight. BBC One, 16 June.

Wogan, T. (2014) Forget Me Not children’s hospice, Huddersfield In: Appeal Show [Television programme] Children in need. BBC One, 14 November.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Wark and Osbourne (2015) or (Wark and Osbourne 2015)

It is often useful to mention the name of the programme as well as the episode when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation. See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Presenter and main contributor(s)- use family name and initials
  2. (Year of first broadcast)
  3. Title of section or piece, in italics (you may have to create a logical title for this)
  4. The word “In”: Title of episode if known, series number and episode number if known, in italics
  5. [Television programme] in square brackets
  6. Title of series.
  7. Name of channel,
  8. First broadcast date (day and month).

EndNote Reference Type – Film Or Broadcast, add “Television programme” in the Medium section.

To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the programme in to the Series Title field.

Special features of a film or TV programme on a DVD or Blu-ray

Use this template when a DVD or Blu-Ray contains features not available in the broadcast version.

A reference to a special feature will look like:

Author(s) or Creator(s) (Year) Special feature title In: Title of episode or film, series number, episode number (for television programmes). [DVD or Blu-ray] Series title (for television programmes). Distribution Company.

Examples of references

Meadows, S. (2007) Director's commentary In: This is England. [DVD]. Leeds: Screen Yorkshire.

The Mill (2008) Special effects for spaceships In: The Last Sontaran, series 2, episode 1. [DVD] The Sarah Jane Adventures.BBC Worldwide.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Meadows (2008) or (Meadows 2008)

It is often useful to mention the name of the programme as well as the episode in the sentence when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation. (For example: “The Sarah Jane Adventures used CGI effects first developed for Doctor Who. Their use of special effects is discussed in an interview about the SJA episode The Last Sontaran (The Mill 2008) … ”).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) or creator(s) of special feature- use family name followed by initials.
  2. Year of distribution (in round brackets).
  3. Title of feature In: Title of episode or film, series and episode numbers (if known), all in italics.
  4. [DVD] or [Blu-ray].
  5. (For television programmes only) series title.
  6. Distribution company.

EndNote Reference Type – use Film Or Broadcast, add “DVD” or “Blu-Ray” in the Medium section.

To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the special feature title, the film or episode title, and the series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the programme into the Series Title field.

Episodes of a radio programme

This includes any programme from an identifiable radio station, including live analogue or digital radio, episodes listened to on a streaming service or downloaded from the radio station’s website, and episodes listened to on CD. The web address and date accessed are only essential when the radio station is online-only.

A radio programme reference will look like:

Producer, Scriptwriter or Presenter (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number [Radio programme] Programme title. Radio station name, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

Curran, P. (2009) Computer programmers [Radio programme] The tribes of science. BBC Radio 4, 9 August. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00lxvl7 Accessed 26 August 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Curran (2009) or (Curran 2009).

If you are talking about a specific moment in the audio, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the programme: …the sound effect of an old modem at 3m25s (Curran 2009).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Producer, scriptwriter or presenter’s name(s)- use family name followed by initials
  2. (Year of first broadcast)
  3. Title of episode, which must be in italics
  4. Series and episode numbers (if known),which must be in italics
  5. [Radio programme] in square brackets
  6. Title of programme.
  7. Name of radio station,
  8. First broadcast date (day and month).

If it is an online programme:

9. Web address.

10.“Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the programme.

EndNote Reference Type – use Film Or Broadcast, add “Radio programme” in Medium section

To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the programme in to the Series Title field

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

A particular section within a radio programme

For example, an interview or feature- something that was a recognisably separate section in a show.

A reference to a section of a radio programme will look like:

Presenter and Main Contributor(s) (Year) Section/piece title In: Episode title, series number, episode number (if known). [Radio programme] Series title. Radio station name, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Examples of references

Taylor, L. and Bailey, S. (2017) Dementia carers In: Grandfathers - Dementia carers. [Radio programme] Thinking Allowed, BBC Radio 4, 22 March. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08jbdrh Accessed 4 September 2017.

Wark, K. and Woolcock, P. (2014) Ackley Bridge In: Crossing the Boundaries of Gender, Race and Class [Radio programme] Start the week. BBC Radio 4, 12 June. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08tbdtw Accessed 5 September 2017.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Taylor and Bailey (2017) or (Taylor and Bailey 2017).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Presenter and main contributor(s)- use family name and initials
  2. (Year of first broadcast)
  3. Title of section or piece, in italics (you may have to create a logical title for this)
  4. In: Title of episode if known, Series number and episode number if known, all in italics
  5. [Radio programme] in square brackets
  6. Title of series.
  7. Name of station,
  8. First broadcast date (day and month).

If it is an online programme:

  1. Web address
  2. "Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the programme.

EndNote Reference Type – use Film Or Broadcast, add “Radio programme” in Medium section.

To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the programme in to the Series Title field.

Podcasts or other online audio files

A podcast (or other streaming or downloadable audio file) reference will look like:

Presenter or Scriptwriter (Year) Title. [Podcast] or [Audio File] Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Harkness, S. (2005) Research methods. [Podcast] University of the District of Columbia. http://podcast.udc.edu/sharkness/feed.xml Accessed 28 June 2014.

Lovelock, J. (1996) The Common Cold Unit Recordings. [Audio file] http://sounds.bl.uk/View.aspx?item=021M-C1038X0016XX-0100V0.xml Accessed 3 May 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Harkness (2005) or (Harkness 2005).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Presenter’s or scriptwriter’s name(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year produced (in round brackets).
  3. Title (or supply a logical title, for example Podcast on…), in italics.
  4. Type of medium- [Podcast] or [Audio file], in square brackets
  5. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified)- for example an institution which created the podcast.
  6. Web address
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the podcast.
EndNote Reference Type – Web Page, add “Podcast” or “Audio file” in the Type of Medium section.

Referencing images (tables, photographs, illustrations etc.)

This is for any image from a print source such as a book (a photograph, diagram, illustration, table, figure, etc.). Your reference will just be a reference to the book or other source where you found the image. The citation in your text will be the place that shows this is an image, and as this is an exact quotation from your source, the page number must be included in the citation.

If you are using photographs you took or images you have created, include a wording in the image caption that makes it clear that this is your own work (such as “Source: Author”). There is no need to put anything in the reference list. Your lecturers might ask you to include a list of images after the contents page or as an appendix to the document.

An image reference will look like this:

Creator(s) (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Handy, R.L. and Spangler, M.G. (2007) Geotechnical engineering. 5th edition. London: McGraw-Hill.

Example of citing in the text of your work (usually in your caption for the image): Figure from Handy and Spangler (2007: 352) or (Handy and Spangler 2007: 352) – diagram of…

See the section on Citing within the text of written work  for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Creator(s) of the image (family name followed by initials)- this will be the author(s) of the book or article, unless it is specifically credited to someone else.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of book, which must be in italics.
  4. Edition.
  5. (This is optional) City or town of publication:
  6. Publisher.

An image from a journal article should be referenced as a direct quote of information from a journal article, an image from a report should be referenced as a direct quote from a report, etc.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book for an image for a book, Journal Article for an image from an article, etc

Online images

This is for any image from a website (photograph, diagram, illustration, table, figure, etc.). It is fairly common for websites to copy images from other sources. You should try to find and credit the original creator of the image rather than use secondary referencing. Google’s Reverse Image Search can help with this.

If you can identify that the webpage which has the image is actually a report from a named organisation, you are just doing an exact quotation from a report, so use the Reports and organisational policies template in the Referencing other sources section. In the citation for the image, put “Image from… or “Figure from…” and include the page number where the image is found in the report.

Similarly, if you can identify that the webpage is actually an online journal article, use the Electronic journal articles template in the Referencing journal articles  section; in the citation for the image in your text, put “Image from… or “Figure from…” and include the page number where the image is found in the article.

An online image reference will look like this:

Creator(s) (Year) Image title. [Image] or [Photograph] (do not use if included in the title). Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Anatomy.tv (2006) Spinal cord. [Image]. http://www.anatomy.tv/start.asp?app=spine&startres=00000&newwin=&framesize=&h=768&w=1024&GuideResId=&GuideIndex=&isStudent/a>= Accessed 18 January 2014.

Internet encyclopedia of science (2008) Blood flow through the heart. [Image]. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/H/heart.html Accessed 21 March 2016.

Example of citing in the text of your work (usually in your caption for the image): Spinal cord diagram, Anatomy.tv (2006).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work  for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Creator(s) of the image. Use family name, followed by initial(s). (If they cannot be identified, give the author or corporate author of the website).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the image / photograph, which must be in italics (or supply a logical title, for example, Photograph of …).
  4. [Image] or [Photograph], unless that was part of the title.
  5. (This is optional) Publisher of the online image, that is, the organisation that runs the website (if this can be identified).
  6. Web address
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the website.
EndNote Reference Type – use Web Page, add “Image” or “Photograph” in the Type of Medium section

Referencing legal and official publications

Government and parliamentary publications (official publications)

Documents produced by government departments

When referencing non-parliamentary official publications follow the instructions for referencing Books. If there is a report number, put this in as part of the title.

So a government publication reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Report number. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) Undertaking systematic reviews of effectiveness: CRD guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. CRD Report 4. 2nd edition. York: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.

Example of citing in the text of your work: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) or (NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2001).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book

To make EndNote display the report number correctly, you will need to include it in the Title field in the EndNote record.

Parliamentary publications: Command Papers

Command papers include statements of government policy, also known as White Papers; consultation documents, also known as Green Papers; the reports of Royal and Departmental Commissions; annual accounts and the reports of Commissions of Enquiry and international treaties.

A command paper reference will look like this:

Author (Year) Title (command paper reference number). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Examples of references

Department of Health (2011) Enabling excellence: autonomy and accountability for healthcare workers, social workers and social care workers (Cm 8008). The Stationery Office. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/216580/dh_124374.pdf Accessed 12 July 2014.

Home Office (2003) Identity cards: the next steps (Cm 6020). London: The Stationery Office.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Home Office (2003) or (Home Office 2003). It is useful to your lecturer to note in the sentence surrounding the citation that this is a command paper, for example: “In the command paper Cm 6737 (Home Office, 2003) it states that…”

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author (the Government department, committee, or organisation submitting the paper)
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the command paper, which must be in italics. This must include command paper number (Cm) (in round brackets), which must be exactly as it is given in the document, including the prefix Cmd/Cm, etc.- these are meaningful.
  4. (This is optional) Place of publication (almost certainly London)
  5. Publisher (almost certainly The Stationery Office).

If you used the paper online:

6. Web Address
7. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book if you used a printed command paper, use Electronic Book if you used the paper online.

Make sure that you include the command paper number as part of the Title field in your EndNote library so that EndNote can display the reference properly. It must be exactly as it is given in the document (including the prefix Cmd/Cm/etc- these are meaningful).

Hansard records

Hansard is the official record of the UK’s Parliamentary proceedings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

If you are accessing the online version, you can also include the web address.

A Hansard reference will look like this:

Hansard: House (Year) Title. Day and month, column number. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet)

Examples of references

Hansard: Commons (2009) Climate change. 5 November, column 1007. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm091105/debtext/9105-0006.htm#column_1007 Accessed 9 November 2009.

Hansard: Lords (2009) English Heritage. 12 March, column WA272. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200809/ldhansrd/text/90312w0002.htm Accessed 9 November 2009.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Hansard: Commons (2009) or (Hansard: Commons 2009)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Hansard: House
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. The title of the debate in italics, including the exact date and column number.

If you used the online version:

4. Web address
5. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the document.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book if you are quoting a printed volume of Hansard, use Web Page if you used Hansard online.

Make sure that you include the exact date of the debate and the column number as part of the title in your EndNote library so that EndNote can display the reference properly. These must be exactly as they are given in the document.

Laws and other legal documents

Note that this is the Harvard style of referencing laws and other legal documents- students from the School of Law on LLB or LLM courses need to use the OSCOLA style.

Acts of Parliament (statutes)

An Act of Parliament reference will look like this:

Act name and year Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Examples of references

Health Act 2006

Health Service Commissioner for England (Complaint Handling) Act 2015

Local Transport Act 2008 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/26/contents. Accessed 31 August 2016.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Health Act (2006) or (Health Act 2006).

Note: A statute is divided into Sections (you write this like “s.1”), Subsections (written like “(1)” and Paragraphs (written like “(a)”). When talking about a specific point in a statute, you must cite the exact point in the body of your text. For example, if you are citing Section 16, Sub-section (2), Paragraph (b) of the Health Act 2006:

Example of citing in the text of your work when citing a specific point: Improvement notices can be issued where NHS bodies are not observing the code of practice relating to health care associated infections (Health Act 2006, s.16(2)(b)).

Yes, this does mean that your citation may be longer than your reference!

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The title of the Act including the date, which must be in italics (ignore the chapter number)

If you accessed the act online include the following:

2. Web address

3. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote Reference Type – use Statute.

EndNote will not allow the citation to be correctly formatted if you need it to display subsections and paragraphs; you will need to edit the citation by hand. You will also need to edit the EndNote record, entering the name of the act in the author field. (See Manually editing EndNote citations or references).

Statutory instruments

A statutory instrument reference will look like this:

Title and year (SI year/number). Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

The Food Safety and Hygiene (England) Regulations 2013 (SI 2013/2996) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2013/2996/pdfs/uksi_20132996_en.pdf Accessed 29 August 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work (do not include SI number): The Food Safety and Hygiene (England) Regulations (2013)consolidates UK legislation with regard to EU food safety…

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Title and year, which must be in italics.
  2. SI year/number (in round brackets).

If you accessed the instrument online:

3. Web address
4. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote Reference Type – use Legal Rule Or Regulation.

Cases from Law Reports

A case reference will look like this:

Names of the parties to the case (Year) Volume number Abbreviated law report series name First page of report.

Examples of references

Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (2004) 2 All ER 995.

Jarvis v Hampshire County Council (2000) 2 FCR 310.

Example of citation in text- case names should be given in italics:

Murphy v Brentwood District Council (1990) 2 All ER 908

When talking about a case for the first time, give its full name (exactly as it appears in the report). In subsequent references, a case can be cited by a shortened name, e.g. Murphy v Brentwood District Council may be referred to as the Murphy case.

If you give a direct quote, also include the specific page number in the in-text citation.

Example of citing in the text of your work when using a direct quote:

Jones v Tower Boot Co Ltd (1997) 2 All ER 406: 411

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Names of the parties, which must be in italics.
  2. Year (in round brackets).
  3. Volume number.
  4. The commonly accepted abbreviated name of the law report series. (For example All ER for All England Law Reports or FCR for Family Court Reporter)
  5. Number of the first page of the report.

EndNote Reference Type – use Case.

EndNote is not able to format the citation correctly- you will need to edit the sentence to include the law report series (See Manually editing EndNote citations or references).

Referencing other types of source

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

A reference to a systematic review within the Cochrane Database should follow the rules for Referencing electronic journals in the section on Referencing electronic journal articles.

Comics, books of cartoons, manga, graphic novels

For individual cartoons within books that are mostly text, see the section on referencing Images (tables, photographs, illustrations etc).

A reference to a printed comic, bande dessinée collection, graphic novel, volume of manga, etc. will look like this:

Author(writer), Artist(artist), (this is optional) Inker(inker) (this is optional) (Date) Title. Edition. Volume. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

If the writer and the artist are the same person, you do not need the words "writer" or "artist" after the name.

Examples of references

Beaton, A. (2011) Hark! A vagrant. London: Jonathan Cape.

Bechdel, A.(2006) Fun home: a family tragicomic. Random House.

Wilson, G.W.(writer) and Alphona, A.(artist) (2014) Ms Marvel: no normal. Volume 1. Marvel.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Wilson and Alphona (2014) or (Wilson and Alphona 2014.)

Example of citing in the text of your work for a direct quote, including if you use an image from the book- give the page number: Beaton (2011: 32). If you want to quote a specific panel, give the panel number within the page, for example: (Bechdel 2006: 12, panel 2).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The author(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s). Put the word “(writer)” in brackets after the name. If the writer is also the artist, you do not need the words "writer" or "artist".
  2. The artist/illustrator, if this is a different person from the writer. Use family name, followed by initial(s).  Put the word “(artist)” in brackets after the name.
  3. The inker/penciller, if this is a different person from the artist. Use family name, followed by initial(s).  Put the word “(inker)” or “(penciller)” in brackets after the name.
  4. The year of publication (in round brackets).
  5. The title of the book: the subtitle if it has one, which must all be in italics.
  6. The edition number, if it is not the first edition. For example, 2nd edition.
  7. The volume within the comic series, if it has one.
  8. (This is optional) The city or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. The publisher.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book.

Endnote can’t cope with the brackets saying (writer) and (artist) after the names. You will need to add these in to the reference by hand after you create a plain text version of the assignment (see Manually editing Endnote citations or references). If you need to add the panel number into the citation you will need to use the “Edit citation” function.

E-comics, webcomics and online cartoons

If you read a comic book, graphic novel, volume of manga, etc from an online service like ComiXology, you should cite and reference it like a printed comic.

For webcomics and cartoons, see the section on Referencing images.

EndNote Reference Type – use Book for whole books; for individual cartoons use Web Page, add “Cartoon” or “Comic” in the Type of Medium section.

Conferences

Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed conference paper. You should only include the web address if the proceedings are not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure).

A reference to a paper presented at a conference and then published as part of the proceedings of the conference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Paper title. In Conference title, conference location and date. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Page numbers. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Examples of references for a paper from a conference

Mendes, L. and Romeo, T. (2014) Children as teachers. In 9th International Online Information Conference, London 3-5 December 2013. London: Learned Information. 320-332.

Paul, J., Stechele, W., Kroehnert, M. and Asfour, T. (2014) Improving efficiency of embedded multi-core platforms with scratchpad memories. In 27th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Luebeck, Germany, 25-28 February. VDE Verlag. 371-378. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6775075. Accessed 13 March 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Mendes and Romeo (2014) or (Mendes and Romeo 2014)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the paper. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the paper.
  4. The word“In
  5. Title of the conference (and subtitle if present), which must be in italics. This is a name, so all the words should be Capitalised.
  6. Location and Date of Conference.
  7. (This is optional) Town or City of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher of the conference proceedings.
  9. First and last page numbers of the paper (separated by a dash -).

If you used the paper from an online source:

  1. Web address, or DOI if available.“Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the paper.

EndNote Reference Type – use Conference Paper.

Full books of conference proceedings

A conference proceedings reference will look like this:

Editor(s) (Year) Conference title. Conference location and date. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

IEEE (2014) International Conference on Adaptive Science and Technology (ICAST). CSIR International Conference Centre, Pretoria, 25-27 November 2013. New York: IEEE.

Example of citing in the text of your work: IEEE (2014) or (IEEE 2014)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Editor(s) (use family name followed by initials) of the proceedings, or the corporate author- the organisation that ran the conference.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of conference: subtitle if it has one, which must all be in italics. This is a name, so all the words should be Capitalised.
  4. Location and date of conference.
  5. (This is optional) Place of publication:
  6. Publisher.

If you used the proceedings from an online source:

7. Web address, or DOI if available.

8. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote Reference Type – use Conference Proceedings.

Historical works

Sources written before 1900 will often lack details such as author and date of composition. If you do not have an author, use the title of the book in the citation and at the start of the reference. If there is no date, use “(no date)”. You could also use an approximate date such as (1150?).

Sources with an author

A reference to a historical book where you know the author will look like this:

Author(s) (Year if known) Title. Translated Name of translator and/or Editor(Year translated or year of edition you have used). Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Bede (no date) History of the English church and people. Translated Sherley-Price, L. (1956) Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.

Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan. (1991 reprint) Cambridge University Press.

Sturlason, S. (1220) Heimskringla: the Norse King sagas. Translated Laing, S. (1844) Everyman Dent.

For a foreword or introduction to an ancient text, reference it as though it were a chapter in an edited book. For example: 

Simpson, D. D. A (1975) Foreword. In Colt-Hoare, R. (1812) The ancient history of Wiltshire. EP Publishing, 1-25. 

Example of citing in the text of your work: Bede (no date) or (Bede no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations..

If you are citing a direct quotation and therefore need to include a page number in the citation, you can cite the page numbers of the original or the reprint, as long as you make clear which you are using.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name, followed by initials.
  2. Year the book was originally written (in round brackets). If the year is not known, use (no date).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Translator of the edition consulted, if it was translated- family name followed by initials.
  5. Editor of the edition consulted, if any- family name followed by initials
  6. Date of translation, or date of the edition of the book that you are using (in round brackets)
  7. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  8. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. Publisher.

EndNote Reference Type – use Ancient Text.

In your EndNote record, the date of the original item goes in the Year field; the date of the edition or translation you are using goes in the Date field. If the item has an editor, you need to put their name in to the Translator field.

Sources with no author

Use the name of the book at the start of the reference where you would usually have the author’s name.

A reference to an anonymous historical source will look like this:

Book title. (Year if known) Translated Name of translator and/or editor (Year translated or year of edition you have used). Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Hrafnkel's saga and other Icelandic stories (no date) Translated Palsson, H. (1971) Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Hrafnkel's saga (no date) or (Hrafnkel's saga no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. In place of the author’s name, use the title of the book and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  2. Year the book was originally written (in round brackets). If the year is not known, use (no date).
  3. The word “Translated” if the book is a translation, or the word “Edited” if the edition of the book has a named editor.
  4. Translator of the edition consulted, if it was translated- family name followed by initials.
  5. Editor of the edition consulted, if any- family name followed by initials
  6. Date of translation, or date of the edition of the book that you are using (in round brackets)
  7. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  8. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. Publisher.

EndNote Reference Type – use Ancient Text.

In your EndNote record, the date of the original item goes in the Year field; the date of the edition or translation you are using goes in the Date field. If the item has an editor, you need to put their name in to the Translator.

Lectures and personal communications

Lectures, presentations, study guides or handouts

It is generally considered to be poor practice to reference handouts and lectures if there are published sources available. Ask your lecturer if you want to reference their lecture and they may be able to guide you to more appropriate sources.

A reference to lecture material (delivered live or electronically) will look like this:

Author or Lecturer (Year) Title. Module name. Institution and Department Name.

Example of reference

Sadik, K. (2016) Week 1: Internet history. COS4008-B Fundamentals of Internet Technology. University of Bradford, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Sadik (2016) or (Sadik 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s or Lecturer’s name (use family name followed by initials).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of item
  4. Name of academic module, which must be in italics; include the module code if known.
  5. Name of the institution and department from which the module was delivered.
EndNote Reference Type – use Book Section.

Personal communications (conversations, emails, interviews, etc)

Personal communications such as conversations should not generally be included in the reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. However, there may be valid reasons to reference some forms of personal communication such as emails, interviews, or verbal surveys. Make sure that you ask the consent of the person you want to cite. You must anonymise their responses if they ask you to or it is in your ethics guidelines to do so.

For emails, it may be useful to copy the whole email and include it as an appendix to your work.

A personal communication reference will look like this:

Interviewee name (Year) Title (include subject discussed or email title, and your name). [Personal communication] Day and month of communication.

Examples of references

Peters, N. (2008) Telephone interview on ward procedures with J. Stirling. [Personal communication] 27 August.

Stanley, T. (2007) Email to J. Stirling about widening participation. [Personal communication] 18 June.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Peters 2008, pers. comm., 27 August)

 Here are the full rules about each piece of information:
  1. Name of person who provided the information. Use family name, then initial(s). Use pseudonym or “Anonymous” if needed.
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title- The medium (Conversation / Telephone conversation / Interview) and the subject of the discussion or title of the email, in italics. Include your name (or the name of the person to whom the information was given).
  4. [Personal communication] in square brackets.
  5. Day and month of communication.

EndNote Reference Type – use Personal Communication, put “Personal communication” in the Type of Medium section.

You will need to edit the citation by hand to note that it is a personal communication and add the exact date (see Manually editing Endnote citations or references).

Maps

A reference to a commercially available printed map will look like this:

Author/Publisher (Year) Title, Sheet number (this is optional), Scale. (Series title) (this is optional). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Ordnance Survey (1999) Anglesey East, sheet 263, 1:25,000. (Landranger series). Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Ordnance Survey 1999) or Ordnance Survey (1999).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Map author’s/publisher’s name (for most UK maps, this is Ordnance Survey).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title, which must be in italics.
  4. (This is optional) Sheet number,
  5. Scale.
  6. (This is optional)  Series title, in brackets.
  7. (This is optional) City or town of publication:
  8. Publisher.

EndNote Reference Type – use Map.

Online maps

When using maps generated by Digimap, the date of production of the map and the scale will be shown at the bottom of the page when you generate a PDF file. You will have to give the map a title, based on where you have centred the map.

For most free services, the author can be taken to be the copyright holder of the map data, and the date of creation as being the copyright date.

Most free maps do not give a scale, just a scale bar. You could either measure the scale bar on screen and calculate the scale or put ‘Unknown scale’.

A reference to an online or downloaded map will look like this:

Author/Publisher (Year) Map title Scale. Web address and date accessed.

Example of reference

Ordnance Survey (2010) Whitby 1:1,250. http://edina.ac.uk/digimap Accessed 12 January 2011.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Ordnance Survey 2010) or Ordnance Survey (2010)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Map author’s/publisher’s name.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of map, which must be in italics – include the Sheet number or tile if available.
  4. Scale.
  5. Web address of the service that created the map
  6. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the map.

EndNote Reference Type – use Map.

Newspaper articles

If there is no person named as the author of a newspaper article, use the newspaper title as the author.

A newspaper article reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year). Article title. Newspaper title, day and month, Section and page number.

Examples of references

Hitchens, P. (2010) My opposition to cannabis is based on hard evidence, not prejudice. The Guardian, 15 December, Society section 34.

The Guardian (2016) The Guardian view on cultural ties and Europe: in praise of shared values and ideals. The Guardian, 30 May, Culture section 2.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Hitchens (2010) or (Hitchens 2010); The Guardian (2016) or (The Guardian 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the newspaper, which must be in italics.
  5. Day and month of publication.
  6. Section of the paper (where available)
  7. Page number of the article.
EndNote Reference Type – use Newspaper Article.

Online newspaper articles

Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed newspaper article.

You should only use this electronic newspaper article format when the newspaper:

  • Has no volume, issue and page numbers, or
  • Is not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure)

An online newspaper article reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year). Article title. Newspaper title, day and month. Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Hitchens, P. (2010) My opposition to cannabis is based on hard evidence, not prejudice. The Guardian, 15 December. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/dec/15/cannabis-professor-david-nutt-peter-hitchens Accessed 26 March 2014.

The Guardian (2016) The Guardian view on cultural ties and Europe: in praise of shared values and ideals. The Guardian, 30 May. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/30/the-guardian-view-on-cultural-ties-and-europe-in-praise-of-shared-values-and-ideals Accessed 31 May 2016.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Hitchens (2010) or (Hitchens 2010); The Guardian (2016) or (The Guardian 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the newspaper, which must be in italics.
  5. Day and month of publication.
  6. Web address.
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date the article was accessed.
EndNote Reference Type – use Newspaper Article.

Non-English and translated sources

Translated works

This is about works commercially translated and published in English. For works that you have read in a different language and/or you have translated yourself, see Works read in a language that is not English.

The title given can be either in English or in the original language (in which case you may wish to add the English title in square brackets). The work should be cited with the author’s name, not the translator’s.

A translated book (or other printed work) reference will look like this:

Author or Editor(s) (Year) Title [English title] Edition. Translated Translator(s). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Levi-Strauss, C. (1977) Anthropologie structural [Structural anthropology]. Translated Layto, M. London: Allen Lane.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Levi-Strauss (1977) or (Levi-Strauss 1977)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author’s initial(s).
  2. The year the translation was published (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics. [English title] in square brackets.
  4. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  5. The word “Translated”
  6. Translator(s) of the edition consulted- use family name followed by initials.
  7. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher.
EndNote Reference Type – use Book.

Works read in a language that is not English

Follow the usual rules for referencing the kind of item you have used, giving the details of the source you looked at, which will include the title and author, in the original language. However, it is useful to add an English translation in [square brackets] immediately after each section, particularly if the book’s details are in non-European characters like Chinese, Arabic, etc.

 EndNote Reference Type – use Book for books, Journal Article for journal articles, etc.

Patents

A patent reference will look like this:

Inventor(s) (Year) Title. Authorising organisation and patent number. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

Allard, R.J.W., Dyson, J. and Spaven, J.W. (2006) A Cleaning Head. UK Patent Office Patent number GB2402047B. http://gb.espacenet.com Accessed 10 January 2011.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Allard et al. (2006) or (Allard et al. 2006)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Inventor(s) name (surname followed by initials).
  2. Year patent was issued (in round brackets).
  3. Title, which must be in italics.
  4. Authorising organisation.
  5. Patent number.

If the patent was accessed online:

 6. Web address

7. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the standard.

EndNote Reference Type – use Patent.

Reports and organisational policies

Reports are generally produced for reading within an organisation but can be very useful sources. Use this template for sources such as annual reports, organisational policies, technical reports, market research reports, site reports, Historic Environment Records. Published reports can be referenced by following the guidelines under Books.

PLEASE NOTE: Whilst you would normally name the organisation, remember to anonymise documents from your host institution if you have been told to keep it confidential (for your placement reports, work reports etc.).

A report reference will look like this:

Author or Editor(s) (Year) Title. [Type of report] (do not use if part of title). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Report number. Web Address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Examples of references

Deegan, A. (2005) Thornborough Henges air photo mapping project: summary of resources and results. Leeds: Archaeological Services. ALSF 3897.https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/thornborough-henges-nmp/ Accessed 10 August 2015.

BMI Research (2016) Chile oil and gas report Q3 2016 : includes 10 year forecast to 2025. London: Business Monitor International.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Deegan (2005) or (Deegan 2005);  BMI Research (2016) or (BMI Research 2016)

Example of anonymised reference

Host Organisation (2017) Ward procedures for the paediatric wards. [Hospital policy document] Host Organisation.

Example of anonymised citing in the text of your work: Host Organisation (2017) or (Host Organisation 2017).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Type of report, in square brackets, unless this is obvious from the title- for example [Organisational policy]
  5. (This is optional) Location of the organisation that created the report.
  6. Publisher (originating organisation).
  7. Report number (must be exactly as it is given in the document.)

If you found the report on the internet:

  1. Web address
  2. <li“Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the website.
EndNote Reference Type – use Report, add what kind of report it is in the Type of Medium section.

Sacred texts

Use the name of the book at the start of the reference where you would usually have the author’s name. Enter the book, chapter and verse, or Surah and verse, as you would a page number in a direct quotation (or clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system for the sacred text you are using).

A reference to a sacred text will look like this:

Title (Year) Section reference. Translated Name of translator. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Bible: contemporary English version (2000). London: Harper Collins.

Holy Qur'an (2014) 8: 12. Translated Dawood, N.J. London: Penguin.

Example of citing in the text of your work Bible: contemporary English version (2000) or (Bible: contemporary English version 2000)

Example of citation in text when citing a particular section of the sacred work: Bible: contemporary English version (2000, Matthew 5:10) or (Bible: contemporary English version 2000 Matthew 5:10)

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The title of the whole sacred text (including the name of the version, where applicable), which must be in italics
  2. Year of publication of the edition you are using (in round brackets)
  3. If you have quoted a particular section: the Surah and verse numbers, or book name, chapter and verse numbers.
  4. (If it was translated) the word “Translated” and the translator’s name – family name followed by initials
  5. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher of the edition you used.

EndNote Reference Type – use Ancient Text.

You need to put the book name and chapter and verse numbers, or the Surah and verse numbers, into the Pages field in your EndNote record in order for it to display correctly.

Standards

A reference to a standard will look like this:

Authorising organisation (Year) Reference number: Title. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

British Standards Institution (2013) BS ISO/IEC 27001:2013: Information technology: security techniques: information security management systems: requirements. http://bsol.bsigroup.com Accessed 22 July 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (British Standards Institution 2013) or British Standards Institution (2013).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Name of authorising organisation.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Number and title of standard, which must be in italics. The number must include the identifying letters at the beginning.

If the standard was accessed online:

  1. Web address.
  2. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the standard.

EndNote Reference Type – use Standard.

Theses, dissertations or unpublished research

A thesis or dissertation reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Document type. Institution’s name. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

You can also use this template for unpublished research.

Examples of references

Else, P. (2005) Hormone levels and diabetes mellitus. Unpublished research. Toronto, Canada: The Author c/o St John’s Hospital.

Slater, P. (2006) Person centred nursing: the development and testing of a valid and reliable nursing outcomes instrument. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Ulster.

Yulei, W. (2010) Performance modelling and evaluation of heterogeneous wired / wireless networks under Bursty Traffic: analytical models for performance analysis of communication networks in multi-computer systems, multi-cluster systems, and integrated wireless systems. PhD thesis. University of Bradford http://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/handle/10454/4423 Accessed 22 July 2017.

Smith, J. (2016) Survey of Bradford small business owners on satisfaction with branding. Unpublished research, conducted as assignment for marketing, planning and strategy module MAR7007-A. School of Management, Faculty of Management and Law, University of Bradford. 

Example of citing in the text of your work: Slater (2006) or (Slater 2006)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of creation (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Document type, for example Ph.D. Thesis, M.A. Dissertation, Unpublished research or Internal report.
  5. Place name if not part of an Institution’s name, followed by a colon:
  6. Awarding institution.

If you viewed the thesis online:

  1. Web address
  2. “Accessed” and the date you looked at the item.

EndNote Reference Type – use Thesis.

Unpublished archive materials

It is very important to include the number given to the item by the archive, and the institution that keeps the material.

A reference to unpublished archival material will look like this:

Author (Year if known) Item title: Indexing number. Institution.

Example of reference

Wells, C. (no date) Notes on the cremation burials at North Elmham: B 0532 CAL/4. University of Bradford, JB Priestley Library Special Collections.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Wells (no date) or (Wells no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author of the item (if known)- use family name followed by initial(s)
  2. Year created, if known, (in round brackets); you can give an approximate date, such as (1875?), or use (no date).
  3. Title of the item, which must be in italics (you may have to create a sensible description to use for the title.) Include the full indexing number given by the archive.
  4. Institution that holds the archive.

EndNote Reference Type – use Unpublished Work.

You need to include the archive index number in the Title field in your Endnote record , and put the name of the institution that keeps the archive into the Institution field, in order for it to display correctly.

Secondary referencing

Secondary referencing involves referring to a document which you have not seen, but which has been used and cited by someone else. This is not generally good academic practice- you should make an effort to track down the original work and reference that.

For example, you may read a textbook that brings together lots of different theories about a topic to give students an overview. If you just want to mention that there are a lot of different theories, you can refer to the textbook, but if you need to use one of the theories in depth, you should track down and read the original theorist’s work so that you know you are getting their full ideas, not just the shortened and reworded version that the textbook author gave you.

Remember that images also have primary creators and can be copied into secondary sources. If you see a photograph on a website that originally came from a journal article, for example, you need to either find the article and reference that, or do secondary referencing for the image.

If you have not been able to locate the original work, a secondary reference will look like this:

Complete reference to the original journal article, book or other item. Cited in: Complete reference to the item you have read: Page number where the original source was quoted.

Examples of references

Meijer. J.H. and Robbers, Y. (2014) Wheel running in the wild. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1786):20140210. Cited in: Something About Science (2017) A picture is worth a thousand words. Something About Science http://www.somethingaboutscience.com/index.php/nggallery/slideshow?page_id=1165 Accessed 12 February 2017.  

Senogles, H. (1938) The standing stones of Anglesey. Anglesey antiquarian society and field club transactions. 38, 24 – 29.  Cited in: Dyer, J. (1990) Ancient Britain. University of Philadelphia Press: 58.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: (Senogles 1938, cited in Dyer 1990: 58) says that… or Senogles (1938) cited in Dyer (1990: 58) says that….

Photo of a wild mouse running on a wheel (Meijer and Robbers 2014, cited in Something About Science 2017)

See the section on Citing secondary sources for a complete guide to doing this kind of citation.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

1. The full reference to the original work. (Follow the instructions for referencing a book/journal article/ etc).

2. The words “Cited in:”

3. The reference to the source you have used (Follow the instructions for referencing a book/journal article/website etc).

4. The page number in the source you have used where the reference to the earlier source appears.

It is not possible to make EndNote do secondary references correctly. You will need to edit your reference after you save your document to Plain Text (See Manually editing EndNote citations or references.)

Manually editing EndNoteĀ® citations or references

EndNote®

This is a program designed to help you format and organise your references, and add citations and references automatically to Word documents. For information about how to obtain and use EndNote, see the library's Endnote pages.

Please use the Output Style: Harvard (Brad), because this matches the University of Bradford guidelines. If you do not see this in your choice of styles, try logging in to Endnote Online on campus. If this does not work, speak to your subject librarian.

If you add items to your EndNote library by uploading them from Summon or a database, they should have all the pieces of information needed to create a correct citation and reference. If you need to manually create records in EndNote, you will need to choose what sort of item you are using so that EndNote will give you the correct fields to fill in. There is a note by each kind of reference in this document telling you which Reference Type to use for it in EndNote.

The field to enter the web address of any online source in an EndNote record is called URL.

Sometimes you will need to correct the output of Endnote by manually editing it.

Edit the EndNote record itself

In your EndNote library:

  • Double-click on the reference you want to alter.
  • Scroll down and enter or change any fields, as you need to.
  • When you have finished, click on the Save button. There is a Save button both at the top and the bottom of the page.

A common edit you will need to make is if you have any corporate authors- that is, authors that are organisations rather than individual people. EndNote often makes the words in their name appear in the wrong order in your Word document. To make their names display properly, you need to edit the record in your EndNote library to add a comma at the end of the organisation’s name. This fools EndNote into thinking the whole name is an author’s surname and it then appears properly in your citation and reference. For example: the author field in EndNote for the Healthcare Commission should read “Healthcare Commission,”.

Edit citations or references in your Word document

If you have exactly quoted words, images or anything else in your work, you need to include the page number in your citation. To do this, make sure your cursor is in the citation that needs changing, then go to the EndNote toolbar. Click on the “Edit Citation(s)” button. A pop-up box will open. The bottom field in the box is called Pages- type the page number into it. (You just need to put in the number, not the word “pages” or anything else, as EndNote will add that for you.) Click “Save”. (If you don’t see the page number appear in the citation, click on the “Update Citations and Bibliography” button. If you still don’t see it, you may be using a style that doesn’t show page numbers- make sure you have Harvard (Brad) selected).

You can also use the “Edit Citations(s)” button to add extra information to your citation, using the “Prefix” field, which adds whatever you type to the start of your citation, or the “Suffix” field, which adds whatever you type to the end of your citation.

There are some edits to citations and references that EndNote can’t cope with at all (for example, if you have used a secondary reference, there is no way for EndNote to format it correctly). We have noted in the guide when you will need to make these changes manually. Before you can do this, you need to remove the EndNote formatting. Wait until you are happy with your document and are ready to submit it apart from needing to edit the references.

Select “Convert Citations and Bibliography” from the EndNote toolbar and click on “convert to plain text”. A message will appear warning that the file will be saved as a new document, leaving the original unchanged. The original will still be linked to EndNote, and will still be editable. The new document should be saved separately. In this new document, the citations and references are not linked to an EndNote library but are simply words on the page, so you can edit them as you need to. For more help, including instructions for Macs, see the library's Endnote pages.

The reference list or bibliography

A reference list contains the full details of the material you have referred to in your assignment. It is a required part of your coursework. It is one list in alphabetical order (A-Z order). It goes at the end of your piece of work. It is not counted in the word count for your assignment.

A bibliography is a list of background material, used to gather ideas or generally inform your work, but not specifically referred to in your assignment. It is not usually required so you will be specifically told if you need to add one. It is listed in alphabetical order.

Some departments may use the word “bibliography” in the way this document uses the words “reference list”. In that case, simply name the reference list “Bibliography”.

Sample Reference List/Bibliography

@NHSChoices (2014) High-salt diet linked to 1.6 million heart deaths. NHS Choices. 15 Aug 2014. https://twitter.com/NHSChoices/status/500201489168875520 Accessed 15 Aug 2014.

3 Sided Cube (2014) Eye Check by Boots Opticians. [Mobile app] https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cube.bec&hl=en_GBand iTunes Store.Accessed 20 March 2015.

ACI Committee (2008) Report on measurements of workability and rheology of fresh concrete, 238. Farmington Hills: American Concrete Institute.

Barnes, A. (2006) Enzyme could help Celiac Disease patients tolerate gluten:10 September. The Dermatitis Herpetiformis Online Community Blog. http://www.dermatitisherpetiformis.org.uk/dhocblog/2006/09/enzyme-could-help-celiac-disease.html Accessed 28 June 2014.

Blane, D. (2006) The life course, the social gradient, and health. In Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G. (editors) Social determinants of health. Oxford: Open University Press. 54-77.

Blazer-Riley, J. (2000) Communication in nursing. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby. Cited in: McCabe, C. and Timmins, F. (2006) Communication skills for nursing practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan:126.

BNF 71 (2016) London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press.

British Standards Institution (2013) BS ISO/IEC 27001:2013: Information technology: security techniques: information security management systems: requirements. http://bsol.bsigroup.com Accessed 22 July 2014.

Blizzard Entertainment (2007) World of Warcraft. [Computer game] http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/games/wow Downloaded 12 December 2012.

Boud, D. and Walker, D. (2003) Barriers to reflection on experience. In Downie, C. M. and Basford, P. (editors) Mentoring in practice. University of Greenwich. 261-273.

Fergus, H.A. (2004) Montserrat: History of a Caribbean colony. 2nd edition. Oxford: Macmillan/Kindle.

Foreman, J. L. and Gubbins, E. J. (2015) Teachers see what ability scores cannot: predicting student performance with challenging mathematics. Journal of advanced academics 26(1), 5-23.

Host Organisation (2007) Ward procedures for the paediatric wards. [Hospital policy document] Host Organisation.

Hrafnkel's saga and other Icelandic stories (no date) Translated Palsson, H. (1971) Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.

Janaway, R.C., Percival, S.L. and Wilson, A.S. (2009a) Decomposition of human remains. In Percival, S.L. (editor) Microbiology and Aging. Humana Press, 313-334.

Janaway, R.C., Wilson, A.S., Díaz, G.C. & Guillen, S. (2009b) Taphonomic changes to the buried body in arid environments: An experimental case study in Peru. In Ritz, K., Dawson, L. and Miller, D. (editors) Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics. Bradford: Springer, 341-356

Johnes, M. (2008) A prince, a king, and a referendum: rugby, politics, and nationhood in Wales, 1969–1979. Journal of British studies 47, 129-148.

Kim, C.Y., Rizvan, A., Mirza, M.D., Joshua, A. and Bryant, M.D. (2008) Central veins of the chest: evaluation with time-resolved MR angiography. Radiology http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2472070790 Accessed 27 March 2014.

King’s Fund (2013) An alternative guide to the new NHS in England. [Video] King’s Fund. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CSp6HsQVtw Accessed 15 August 2014.

Levi-Strauss, C. (1977) Anthropologie structural [Structural anthropology]. Translated Layto, M. London: Allen Lane.

Lovelock, J. (1996) The Common Cold Unit recordings. [Audio file] http://sounds.bl.uk/View.aspx?item=021M-C1038X0016XX-0100V0.xml Accessed 3 May 2014.

Meijer. J.H. and Robbers, Y. (2014) Wheel running in the wild. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1786):20140210. Cited in: Something About Science (2017) A picture is worth a thousand words. Something About Science http://www.somethingaboutscience.com/index.php/nggallery/slideshow?page_id=1165 Accessed 12 February 2017.

NHS England (2016) NHS standard contract 2017/18 and 2018/19: service conditions (shorter form). NHS England. https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/5-service-conditions-sf-v2.pdf Accessed 13 February 2017.

Nishimura, Y., Saito, M., Kamei, H. and Cobb, A. (1996) An applied survey on buried mounded tombs by using 3-component magnetometer and earth radar system. Annales geophysicae 14(S1), c164.

Ordnance Survey (1999) Anglesey East, sheet 263, 1:25,000. (Landranger series). Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Paul, J., Stechele, W., Kroehnert, M. and Asfour, T. (2014) Improving efficiency of embedded multi-core platforms with scratchpad memories. In 27th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Luebeck, Germany, 25-28 February. VDE Verlag. 371-378. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6775075 Accessed 13 March 2015.

Science Museum (2017) Shadow Biped robot. [Photograph] https://www.instagram.com/p/BQFjpS5Dd7a/ Accessed 15 February 2017. 

Senogles, H. (1938) The standing stones of Anglesey. Anglesey antiquarian society and field club transactions. 38, 24 – 29.  Cited in: Dyer, J. (1990) Ancient Britain. University of Philadelphia Press: 58.

Sterne, J.A.C., Egger, M. and Smith, G.D. (2001) Systematic reviews in health care: Investigating and dealing with publication and other biases in meta-analysis. BMJ 323(7304), 101-105.

Student, A. (2015) Survey of 15 local video game designers about their workflow. Work undertaken as part of Indie Games: Concept, Design and Development module 2015-6. School of Media Design and Technology, University of Bradford.

Verhoeven, J. (2006) Wetlands and natural resource management. Ecological studies 190. Berlin: Springer.

Welles, O. (1941) Citizen Kane [Film] USA: RKO Radio Pictures.

Wells, C. (no date) Notes on the cremation burials at North Elmham: B 0532 CAL/4. University of Bradford, JB Priestley Library Special Collections.

Yulei, W. (2010) Performance modelling and evaluation of heterogeneous wired / wireless networks under Bursty Traffic: analytical models for performance analysis of communication networks in multi-computer systems, multi-cluster systems, and integrated wireless systems. PhD thesis. University of Bradford http://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/handle/10454/4423 Accessed 22 July 2014.

Alphabetical list of types of source in this guide

Acts of parliament: see Legal and Official publications

Anonymising organisational policies: see Other sources (under Reports and organisational policies)

Archival material: see Other sources

Audio files, online: see Audio and video sources

Audio sources: see Audio and video sources

Blog posts: see Electronic sources

Blu-ray, special features: see Audio and video sources

Book chapters: see Books and book chapters

Book series: see Books and book chapters

Book series, chapters in: see Books and book chapters

Books: see Books and book chapters

Books, electronic: see Books and book chapters

Cartoons: see Other sources (under comics)

Cartoons, online: : see Other sources (under comics)

Cartoon books: see Other sources (under comics)

Case law: see Legal and Official publications

Cases from law reports: see Legal and Official publications

Chapters in book series: see Books and book chapters

Chapters in books: see Books and book chapters

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: see Other sources

Computer games: see Electronic sources

Comics: see Other sources

Comics, electronic: see Other sources (under comics)

Command papers: see Legal and Official publications

Conference papers: see Other sources

Conference proceedings, full books: see Other sources

Conferences: see Other sources

Conversations: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Data, online: see Electronic sources

Databases: see Electronic sources

Departmental documents, government : see Legal and Official publications

Dissertations: see Other sources

Doctoral theses: see Other sources

DVD, special features: see Audio and video sources

Electronic books: see Books and book chapters

Electronic comics: see Other sources (under comics)

Electronic journal articles: see Journal articles

Emails: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Episodes of a radio programme: see Audio and video sources

Episodes of a television programme: see Audio and video sources

Films: see Audio and video sources

Full books of conference proceedings: see Other sources (under conferences)

Government department documents: see Legal and Official publications

Government publications: see Legal and Official publications

Graphic novels: see Other sources (under comics)

Hansard: see Legal and Official publications

Handouts: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Historical works (with an author): see Other sources

Historical works (no author): see Other sources

Illustrations: see images

Images: see images

Images, online: see images

Interviews: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Journal articles: see Journal articles

Journal articles, electronic: see Journal articles

Journal articles, sections: see Journal articles

Laws: see Legal and Official publications

Law reports: see Legal and Official publications

Lectures: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Legal publications: see Legal and Official publications

Manga: see Other sources (under comics)

Maps: see Other sources

Maps, online: see Other sources

Mobile apps: see Electronic sources

Newspaper articles: see Other sources

Newspaper articles, online: see Other sources

Non-English sources: see Other sources

Novels, graphic: see Other sources (under comics)

Official publications: : see Legal and Official publications

Online audio files: see Audio and video sources

Online cartoons: : see Other sources (under comics)

Online data: see Electronic sources

Online images: see images

Online maps: see Other sources

Online newspaper articles: see Other sources

Online video: see Audio and video sources

Organisational policies: see Other sources

Parliamentary acts: see Legal and Official publications

Parliamentary publications: see Legal and Official publications

Patents: see Other sources

Personal communications: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Photographs: see images

Podcasts: see Audio and video sources

Presentations: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Radio programmes, episodes: see Audio and video sources

Radio programmes, sections: see Audio and video sources

Referencing works you have not read: see Secondary referencing

Reports: see Other sources

Research, unpublished: see Other sources

Sacred texts: see Other sources

Section within a radio programme: see Audio and video sources

Section within a television programme: see Audio and video sources

Special features of a film or TV programme on a DVD or Blu-ray: see Audio and video sources

Statistics, online: see Electronic sources

Standards: see Other sources

Statutes: see Legal and Official publications

Statutory instruments: see Legal and Official publications

Study guides: see Other sources (under lectures and personal communications)

Television programmes, episodes: see Audio and video sources

Television programmes, section: see Audio and video sources

Television programmes, special features: see Audio and video sources

Theses, doctoral: see Other sources

Translated works: see Other sources

Tweets: see Electronic sources

Unpublished research: see Other sources

Unpublished archival material: see Other sources

Video sources: see Audio and video sources

Video, online: see Audio and video sources

Web comics: see Other sources (under comics)

Web documents: see Electronic sources

Webpages: see Electronic sources

Wikis: see Electronic sources

Works read in a language other than English: see Other sources