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Referencing and Plagiarism

Why Reference?

A primary purpose of tutors’ roles is to broaden and deepen students’ (existing) understanding of best business practice.  They aim to achieve that by directing students’ study into the theoretical views of management researchers.  Tutors therefore assign a majority of their marks in most module assignments to students’ critical analysis of that research.

This may conflict with students’ expectations that they should draw mainly on what they have learned in lectures/tutorials, a core textbook or perhaps their own business experience.

For most business subjects, this means that tutors will expect to see most of your writing composed of paraphrased interpretations of others’ ideas and research.  This requires plenty of citations to external sources throughout most paragraphs in your essay. 

Assignment arguments based mainly on your own opinions will not be viewed as academically credible, as they do not show how your understanding has developed through the course teaching and wider reading.     

How and Where to Reference?

Students are therefore expected to use Harvard Referencing System in assignments - see ELS References Booklet in the link below.

These Harvard guidelines for legal sources are intended for use only by School of Management students who study some law modules as part of a business degree.  These are not intended for School of Law students, who should only use the OSCOLA system of referencing.  Please consult your Law tutor or the Faculty Librarian if you are in any doubt about this.  


  • Items you have read and specifically referred to (cited) in your essay. 
  • A list of these at the end of the essay will be headed ‘References’.


  • A list of everything you have read for your essay, whether cited or not in the essay. 

Most tutors prefer you to just have a References section !!

So, what makes an in-text citations and what appears in a reference list?  

- See the examples: Citations and References in practice (PDF file; updated 16/12/2016) 

The following annotated essays provide further demonstration on how and why to reference in written essays. 


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