Comany annual reports often involve multiple authors and rarely show the name or names of the compliers or editors. If they do, however, start with these. But, if not, you start with the company name, then give the year, then full title (in italics), section and chapter then page number.
Company Name (Year) Full Title: Section and Chapter (if applicable), if it is available/accessed online include the web address and the date you accessed it.
Citation: (Cable and Wireless 2014)
Cable and Wireless (2014) A year of transformation and growth: Annual Report2014/15. http://www.cwc.com/live/annual-report/downloads/Cable%20%26%20Wireless%20Annual%20Report.pdf Accessed 9 October 2015.
If the name of the author is shown, start with this. If not, start with the name of the blog. Give the title of the item or article, name of the blog, date of posting of item, the URL address and when you accessed the article.
Citation: (Spicer 2012)
Spicer, D. (2012) Employee engagement is not just for Christmas... five tips for all year round success. University of Bradford School of Management Blog [blog]. 17 Dec 2012. http://blogs.brad.ac.uk/management/experts/2012/12/employee-engagement-is-not-just-for-christmas%E2%80%A6five-tips-for-all-year-round-success/ Accessed 18 Feb 2016.
Single topic books
Family Name, Initial(s) of First Name(s). (Year) Book Title, Edition number. Location of the Publisher: Name of the Publisher.
Citation: (Cunliffe 2014) or Cunliffe (2014)
Cunliffe, A. L. (2014) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about management. London: Sage Publications.
If more than TWO authors, the name of the firsts should always be given, but the names of the others may be omitted and replaced by the term 'et al' (meaning, 'and others') in the citation. In the 'References' section, however, all the authors will be listed as shown below.
Citation: (Ford et al. 2008) or Ford et al.(2008)
Ford, J. Harding, N. and Learmonth, M. (2008) Leadership as identity: constructions and deconstructions. London: Palgrave.
A chapter from an edited book
Some books are not written by a single author, but contain articles or chapters written by different authors. These are edited collections, sometimes called ‘readers’ and have one or more editors.
Citation: (Cornelius et al.2016) or Cornelius et al. (2016)
Cornelius, N., Wallace, J. and Overall, J., (2016) Enhanced Stakeholder engagement and CSR through the UN Guiding Principles, social media pressure, and corporate accountability. In Lindgreen, A. (editor) A relational approach to stakeholder engagement. London: Ashgate. 115-148.
Note: It is the title of the book that is in italics, not the chapter.
Family Name, Initial(s) of First Name(s). (Year). Booklet Title. Location of the Publisher: Name of the Publisher.
Citation: (Neville 2007)
Neville, C. (2007) Return to full-time study. Bradford: Effective Learning Service, University of Bradford, Faculty of Management and Law.
This is essentially the same principle as hard copy books, except that if you are using a direct quote and the book does not have page numbers, you should use the information you do have – for example, location number or percentage.
A reference to an e-book should include the following information, in this order:
- Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author.
- The year of publication (in brackets).
- The title and any subtitle (in italics).
- The edition if it is not the first. For example, 2nd ed.
- Optional. City or town of publication followed by colon:
- Accessed via (name of provider where you have seen the book)
- [Amount available]
Citations: (Erfurt 2012) and (Kuada and Hinson 2014)
Erfurt, J. (2012) Virtual sales process system solutions and algorithm analysis. Gamlingay: Authors Online [e-book].
Kuada, J. and Hinson, R. (2014). Service marketing in Ghana: A customer relationship management approach. London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. ProQuest ebrary [e-book].
You can use SUMMON to gain access to many useful statistical databases, e.g. Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME), Thomson One etc. The database for statistical and company specific information should always be named, its publisher, along with the title of report, and date information was published or last updated.
However, if the database is password protected there is no point in giving the URL address; you only give URL addresses in references if the site is publicly accessible.
The first example below shows how you reference data from the FAME database that focuses on just one company.
Citation: (Dixons Carphone PLC 2014)
Dixons Carphone PLC (2014) Company report: Profile. Bureau Van Dijk Electronic Publishers.
The second example shows a citation and the reference when FAME was used to gather and collate data on three separate companies.
Citation: (FAME Database 2015)
FAME: Financial Analysis Made Easy (2015) Compilation derived from: Company Annual Reports: PC World; Currys; UniEuro. Bureau Van Dijk Electronic Publishers.
Start with the name of the writer or organisation sponsoring the publication, often a government department. If no identifiable author, start with the title of the publication (in italics), followed by date of publication, place of publication, name of official publisher, finally the volume or edition date number, table or page number. Include the URL if it is a dataset rather than a print publication.
The basic format is:
- Government department/official organisation
- Title of the publication which must be in italics
- Publisher and place of publication if available
- Web address (if online)
- Accessed and the date you accessed it (if online)
Example of Government document:
Citation: (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills 2015)
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2015) Guide to the simplified student loan repayment mode (June 2015).
repayment-model.pdf Accessed 18 February 2016.
Example of Command Paper:
Citation : (Foreign and Commonwealth Office 2013)
Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2013) Good business: implementing the UN guiding principles on business and human rights.
September 2013, Cm 8695
Example of Government Reports:
Citation: (European Commission 2012) and (ILO 2014)
European Commission (2012) Towards better access to scientific information: Boosting the benefits of public investments in research
ILO (2014) World of work report: Developing with jobs Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Family Name, Initial(s) of First Name(s). (Year) Title of Article. Name of The Journal Article. Volume Number, Issue Number, Page Numbers.
Citations: (Harding et al. 2014) and (Hibbert and Cunliffe 2015)
Harding, N., Lee, H. and Ford, J. (2014) Who is the middle manager?. Human Relations 67(10) 1213-1237.
Hibbert, P. and Cunliffe, A.L. (2015) Responsible management: Engaging moral reflexive practice through threshold concepts. Journal of Business Ethics 127 177-188.
Journal Article (electronic)
Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed journal article. You should only use this electronic journal article format when the journal:
- Has no volume, issue and page numbers, or
- Is not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure)
or when the article is “forthcoming”, “in press” or “online ahead of print”, so that it is available electronically but has not yet been given a place in a print issue and assigned page numbers.
A reference to an electronic journal article should include the following information, in this order:
- Author(s) name. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
- Year of publication (in brackets).
- The title of the article.
- The title of the journal, which must be in italics.
- Volume number and issue number, if available (issue number in brackets).
- Page numbers, if available.
- Web address.
- Accessed followed by the date (in brackets)
Citation: (Lynch 2015)
Lynch, T. (2015) International students’ perceptions of university lectures in English. International Student Experience Journal, Spring-Summer 3(1). http://isejournal.weebly.com/uploads/1/6/3/1/16311372/isej_028.01.15_tony.pdf Accessed 17 May 2016.
Citation: (Bertillo and Salando 2013)
Bertillo, J and Salando, J. B. (2013) Human resource management practices in an airline industry: British Airways global perspective http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2292797 Accessed 27 October 2015.
Lecture Notes and Course Materials
It is generally considered to be poor practice to reference handouts and lectures if there are published sources available. Ask your lecturer if you want to reference their lecture and they may be able to guide you to more appropriate sources.
- Start with name of lecturer: family name, then initials
- Year of publication (in brackets)
- Title of item
- Name of academic module (in italics)
- Name of the department from which the module was delivered
Citation: (Trouille 2015)
Trouille, J. (2015) Lecture 3: Genesis and institutions of the EU. MAN4326M European Business Management. University of Bradford, Faculty of Management and Law.
Please refer to the ELS References Booklet for further information.
The order of referencing is:
- Name(s) of Journalist, if shown. If name of writer not given, start with the name of the newspaper (in italics)
- The year of publication (in brackets)
- The title of article
- The title of the newspaper, which must be in italics, if not shown as the first item
- The day and month of publication
- The section of the paper (where available) e.g. review sections, supplements
- Page number of the article
Example: With a journalists name
Citation: (Skypala 2005)
Skypala, P. (2005) Shooting the rapids of pension liabilities. Financial Times, 12 December, Fund Management section 3.
Example: No author’s name shown
Citation: (Financial Times 2005)
Financial Times (2005) Helping fashion to embrace IT. Financial Times, FT Companies & Markets supplement, 12 December, 24.
For networking and public communication sites, such as YouTube, the formula of Harvard style follows:
The Name (including just initials or nickname) of the Originator of the Item Being Referenced (if not, start with name of site), (Year of Posting). Title of Message/Item. Name of the Site and Specific Date of Message. URL and access date.
Citation: (Sedgley 2012)
Sedgley, M. (2012) ELS Assignment Success Workshop - What is critical analysis? [video] University of Bradford, Faculty of Management and Law. http://youtu.be/cSLup2wEZ34 Accessed 24 August 2015.